Human resource management is an important aspect of any organization. The HR team is considered to be the think tank of the organisation and the employees as the working body. The work of the HR team is to recruit qualified candidates for the company or any organisation. “For the progress of the company the employees should have good relationships with each other” (Blyton P and Turnbull P, 2004, p. 83). They should work as team and there should be no place for jealousy and complacency.
HRM would involve going beyond an agreement to add 'women's issues' to the research agenda, to recognition of the gendered character of employment relations and of work itself. The formal institutions involved, namely, management, trade unions and the state, cannot be treated as gender neutral. Further, the very way industrial relations scholars define what is 'inside' the industrial relations system and what is 'outside' reflects masculine priorities and privilege.
There has been considerable debate within the HRM literatures as to respective terms of hard and soft approaches. Hard HRM is a utilitarian and instrumental, requiring the close integration of an organisation’s HRM policies with its business strategy. Hard approaches have been associated predominantly with unitary understandings of organisations, in which managerial prerogative, HRM’ s role in achieving in bottom line success and its preparedness to take tough decisions are emphasised.
In contrast, soft HRM stresses the active participation of employees, whereby their commitment, adaptability and skills contribute to the attainment of common organisational goals. Employees are seen as capable of development and worthy of trust and collaboration through participation in the management process. “The soft side of the organisation is hard to change and requires more than words alone” (Legge K, 2005, p. 135).
In management research and practice, as in any field of study and work, there exist diverse theoretical and philosophical approaches and these approaches condition the research questions asked and the recommendations subsequently made. A clear example of the impact of the approach taken is provided by the fall from grace of transactional leadership and its replacement in research activity and recommended practice by transformational leadership. A less clear, but nonetheless similar divergence of approach also exists in literature relating to high performance, for high performance is variously described with a predominant emphasis upon sociological and psychological outcomes or upon the technical and ‘bottom line’ financial outcomes. This predominant emphasis does not deny the likelihood of some effort being made to achieve other outcomes, but it does imply that organizational high performance will be assessed with greater reference to one particular set of variables, associated either with a humanistic framework or a with rational process framework.
“ Organisational high performance may be assessed by comparing the achievement of several organisations in specific measurable areas, or by assessing the performance of the whole organisation against a pre-determined set of expectations” (Redman T and Wilkinson A, 2002, p. 81) or the principled organisation high performance will be attributed to organisations which value, trust and empower their people, work collaboratively, and connect effectively with the wider community through, for example, the involvement of stakeholders external to the organisation.
While not denying the importance of financial and productivity returns, organisational effectiveness goals within the humanistic framework are likely to emphasise either the effectiveness of the organisation as a social system located within the wider community, or the reconciliation and effective use of competing values, leading to workplace harmony. Conclusion
HRM is the advanced form of the HR. It is considered as the backbone of any organisation or firm. The relationship among the employees should be cordial and there should be a jovial environment. Gender equality is gaining importance in present market. Women are being considered as potential threat (competitors) to their male counterparts. With an able leader organisational goals can be achieved through proper planning. Corporate social responsibility also plays an important role in the development of an organisation. CSR agenda is to inspire, challenge and empower employees, to positively contribute to local communities and environment; to help create a substantial business future for all of us. CSR is viewed as part of the way in which business is done and an active approach brings tangible benefits to business. In recognising wider responsibilities to a broad range of stakeholders – including partners, employees, clients, suppliers, community groups and opinion formers – CSR aims to permeate many levels of business activity – affecting corporate governance, employee relations, client relationships, environmental management, community involvement as well as many business operations, including Graduate Recruitment, Diversity and Facilities. CSR takes a number of forms; committed to developing sustainable and mutually beneficial working relationships with community and voluntary organisations working in a variety of fields – including education, regeneration, employment, homelessness and environmental conservation. From above circumstances we can say that HRM is more than a simple reworking of the human resource school of management.
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