SCHOPENHAUER Art and Philosophy As a chaotic confusion, life is beautifully organised by metaphysical systems: mental constructions that give elevated satisfaction and joy. Truth and Beauty must be supported one with each other; otherwise they would become unstable. Feelings are always longing for shapes, which are the basis of the artistic expression. Schopenhauer’s philosophy is eminently artistic. Flattered by Tolstoi, Wagner and Nietzsche, he leads us to Plato and his subordination of the phenomenon to the Idea, the spiritualisation of knowledge and the artist’s role as a mediator between the lower and the upper world, between the spirit and the sensitivity. What Plato called” Idea” is what Kant named “the thing itself”, and those were the elements that Schopenhauer took to define the source of every phenomenon, which he thought it was the Will; the breeder and producer of the entire visible world and life, independent from knowledge; a blind impulse, basic and irrational. Though dispersed among the individuals, in time and space, the Will keeps integral but graduated, supposing a hierarchy of objetivations of will displaying an evolutions in those demonstrations of will and going from animal to man, the intellect’s upper stage. The world is seen as an expression of longing, a consequence of the appetite and sorrow of millions of wills that have left the unity and dispute the matter one with each other, as much as space and time. Like the life chain, every individual devoures each other, becoming man the wolf of man (homo homini lupus). Firstly comes the worry to keep ourselves alive; then, the sexual instinct, love pains, envy, hate, greed, illness: every human existence oscilating between pain and boredom. Pain is the positive term and pleasure, as its mere expression, it is something negative and becomes boredom. Happiness would be the rest, and is impossible for a subject of will. Christianism and Platonism Christianism takes from Platonism the devaluation of senses so as to strengthen the spiritual matters, the only way to salvation and truth; the redemption from the failure and the misery of life. But there seems to be a circumstance when the subject, as slave of will, can rebel itself from its master. This circumstance is the aesthetic state. The aesthetic liking is pure, free from interests; it is representation; it is clear and deep intuition. Through Plato’s world of Ideas, Schopenhauer explains the role of knowledge as a perfect drive to intuition because of its ability of turning the world into representation through the Art. The Ethic as a doctrine about the man’s action is incapable of influence upon his will.
Will is free, absolute and almighty, and makes man feel he is the centre of the Universe, the principium individuationis. When he discovers the deceptive character of that principle of individualism, that is the very beginning and essence of every ethic. To get to slide the “ veil of Maya “, what is the Indian definition for the cheat of believing that the other’s fortune ( the not chosen part of their lives – beauty, intelligence, resources-) is better than ours, is what develops the goodness in every man. Goodness that get its maximum in the Saint, the ascetic, that one who quits the sexual satisfaction to abolish life inside his body and therefore, his will. Schopenhauer considers Music above all the other arts. Music is not just a simple phenomenon representation, but the immediate reproduction of the very will. Arriving to the same principles that are the basis of Christianism, Schopenhauer avoids a conflictive situation with the State, naming it as a “necessary evil”. Although, this might be considered a dangerous approach to the Hegelian concept of the individual’s “melting into” the State, and the posterior atrocities carried out by the Fascism and the Comunism. Schopenhauer’s conservatism, expressed in an apolitical mentality, derives from his own contemplative philosophy, which stands againstthe change and its social face: the revolution, His pessimistic humanism joins Art, Knowledge and Dignity into the human suffering, setting a hierarchy and giving man two great possibilities : Art and Sainthood as self-denial. Schopenhauer gathers a lot of things. His doctrine comprises many elements: idealistic, natural philosophical and even pantheistic elements, with a personality strong enough to join all of them, the classical and the romantic ones, and becoming them an unique way of thinking. His desire to transmit the experience as human pride and melancholy; his pessimism is his humanism. Our pragmatic society is on the life’s side; the sense’s side. But is the spirit the weakest part of man.