Beyond Good and Evil
In this book, German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche presents a type of philosophical treatise detailed in adages and studded in poetry, to present to the reader, a sort of all encompassing view of his philosophy.
Nietzsche begins the book by criticizing the work of previous philosophers. He believes that most philosophers write out of self-justification, in a need to prove their own feelings, experiences, and intuitions. This does not make for objective truth and can often be very harmful to philosophical discourse. Philosophers like Kierkegaard, Plato, etc. often have very specific philosophical agendas that make a lot of sense for them but not for the rest of humanity. Nietzsche encourages us to remove the person out of the work and examine what exactly these minds have held dear.
He then begins to assault a variety of different elements of philosophy such as mob mentality- or believing in what everyone else believes. He assaults nationalism and nationality and encourage individualism, and he attacks religiosity and faith systems as being dogmatic and enslaving. He believes that the truest, most perfect person is he who creates his own individual morality rather than being enslaved to others.
One thing that I find especially interesting about this work is that Nietzsche begins the piece by insulting the work of philosophers before him as being too individualistic and not finding a morality that can resonate with all. But by the end of the book, he has once again advanced his idea of this sort of overman figure, the independent, transcendent figure that overcomes all commonality and creates his own individual.
Another interesting thing to note is that with this sort of transcendence, Nietzsche implies that the philosopher, with finding truth, has found loneliness as well. Nietzsche himself was loner, afflicted with several mental and physical disorders (many believe he had syphilis or some other sexually transmitted disease). I am not criticizing his genius of course, but only pointing out that his philosophy, much like the philosophy of those he looked down upon, reflected his own individual experiences most poignantly.