Isaac Newton Some sources bring its birth as dating of day 4 of January while others present the date of 25 of December. The fact is that it was born in 25 of December in the juliano calendar, corresponding the 4 of January in the gregoriano calendar -; what it is in vigor. Convém to clarify that even so the Gregoriano Calendar has entered in vigor in 1582, England alone started to adopt it very later, and in the occasion of the birth of Newton still it was adopted, in England, the Juliano. Some authors prefer to consider that Newton was born in 25/12/1642 to coincide with the date of the death of Galileu and some of its admirers for considering that it was a Christmas present for the Humanity. Juliano calendar: 25 of December of 1642 - 20 of March of 1727. Gregoriano calendar: 4 of January of 1643 - 31 of March of 1727. Newton studied in the Trinity College of Cambridge, having itself graduated 1665. One of the main precursors of the Iluminismo, its scientific work suffered to fort influence from its professor and Barrow person who orientates (since 1663), and from Schooten, Viète, John Wallis, Discardings, of the works of Fermat on tangent straight lines to the curves; Cavallieri, of the conceptions of Galileu and Kepler. In 1663 today, it formulated the theorem known as Binômio de Newton. It made its first hypotheses on universal gravitation and wrote on infinite series and what it called theory of fluxões - 1665, the embryo of the Differential calculus and Integral. Because of the plague, the Trinity College was closed in 1666 and the scientist was for house of its mother in Woolsthorpe. He was in this year of I remove that he constructed four of its main discoveries: the Binomial Theorem, the calculation, the Law of the Universal Gravitation and the nature of the colors. It constructed the first telescope of reflection in 1668, and was who first observed the visible specter that if can get for the decomposition of the solar light when happening on one of the faces of a transparent triangular prism - or another way of refraction or difração, crossing it and projecting on a way or a white bulkhead, phenomenon this known as Luminous Dispersion.
It opted, then, for the theory to corpuscular of propagation of the light, enunciating it in 1675 and opposing the ondulatória theory of Huygens. Professor of mathematics in Cambridge -1669 became and entered for the Royal Society 1672. Its main workmanship was the publication Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica -; mathematical Principles of the natural philosophy - 1687, in three volumes, in which it enunciated the law of the universal gravitation - Vol. 3, generalizing and extending the constatações of Kepler, and summarized its discoveries, mainly the calculation. This workmanship treated essentially on physics, astronomy and mechanics - laws of the movements, movements of bodies in resistant ways, isothermal vibrations, speed it sound, air density, fall them bodies in the atmosphere, atmospheric pressure, etc. In 1696 of was nominated Warden the Mint and in 1701 Master of the Mint, two bureaucratic positions of the British mint. He was elect foreign partner of Académie DES Sciences in 1699 and became president of the Royal Society in 1703. It published, in Cambridge, Arithmetica universalis 1707, a species of book-text on mathematical identities, analysis and geometry, possibly writing many years before - perhaps in 1673. It wrote - 1669 and published - 1711 Of analysi to per aequationes I number terminorum infinite, on series and calculation. It wrote -1671 and it published; 1742 - Methodus fluxionum et serierum infinitorum, also on the same subject. It also published conclusions on draining in canals, speed of superficial waves and displacement of the sound in air. Also it wrote on chemistry, alchemy, chronology and theology.