This summary is the next part of the chapter that I wrote about in the summary under the same title but part 1.VOCABULARY & MEANING - FOCUSED OUTPUT ( speaking & writing )
how Teacher can influence spoken production?
1) big effect on what vocab is used & negotiated during task has -> WRITTEN INPUT to communicative task.Such vocab may be first in written task sheet handed out to ss. & then this vocab was produced during the retelling.
there is greater chance to learn a word if there is negotiation of meaning of unknown vocabulary.but still more wordsare learned through being used recepteively or productively. ( because much more unknown words were used and not negotiated before)
How words r learned- depends on how theu r used during comunicative task. Word is better learned if it's used or observed in many difr context difr from that in which it was seen in written input.
ss can exchange inf with each other about words in typical comunicative tasks.
5) ss who actively negotiate words learn the same as those who observe negotiation
6) only ~ 6% of negotiation is about meaning. Other kinds of negotiation r that of procedure, comprehension, mishearing etc..
Teacher has to carefuly design & monitor use of handouts for spoken tasks, cause Teacher may have big influence on what vocabulary is learned & how well it's learned.####
T = teacher
ss = students