FACTORS FAVOURING SURVIVAL AND RAISING OF SNAIL
Environment is the combination of external physical conditions that affect and
influence the growth, development and survival of organisms. Snail farms can be
indoors or outdoors provided environmental conditions necessary for survival
prevails for optimum production of snail the following environmental factors
are ideal .
Temperature influences the activities of snails temperature above 200c
will cause the snails to as stivate our hibernate in order to regulate the body
fluid continual snails thrive well under ambient temperature of 200c
with considerable growth rate all year round with zero chance of aestivation.
Temperature and humidity 80 hand in hand and are very critical in the survival
This factor is very critical as the snail has to maintain a constant
equilibrium between the fluids. A humid environment is required for snail to
remain active and bred all years round. A is therefore necessary to moisten the
environment during fry periods. Humidity and water availability is very
important in snail rearing and influences feeding. Snail need damp, not wet
environment. During dark hours, air humidity of 80% will promote good snail
actirity and growth. Though snails need water, their environment must not be
Snail though generally nocturnal requires light for optimum growth. Provided
the amount of light in terms of quantity and quality is very arucil in the life
can be achieved by natural and artificial means. At the level of our
technological advancement natural lighting is mostly employed. Light
essentially is necessary for some biological processes such as photosynthesis
take place which is very vital in energy cycle food chain intensive snail
rearingsurcely involves artifical lighting system to prompt the snail into
their natural reproductive cycle. Three environment factors (daylight hours,
temperature and humidity influence the reproductive cycle of snails. As a
result of the sophisticated nature expensive for small scale farmers.
Soil is a medium for reproduction of snails good management practice involves
selection and mixture of soil. It should be recalled that soil harbour a lot of
pests predators and soil should diseases. It becomes necessary that soil farm
be properly analyzed before use in snail activities and development. It mixture
of sand and clay in good proportion retains water and therefore is not suitable
on the other hand clay during the rains is water logged and cakes up during the
dry period too hard for the snails to burrow through. Loamy soil is recommended
as it contains enough organic matter with good retentive capacity. Acidic soil
should be avoided. If it can not be avoided liming is encouraged in such
situation. Periodic application of calcium is also encouraged where and when it
is absent. The soil should not contain harmful salts or be so alkaline so as
net to burn the snails
Reproduction: Sexual maturity in
snail is attained after six months and snails can live as long as 5-10 years.
Snails is a hermaphrodite containing both male and female sex organs however
self fertilization is not common.
Each snails has two sets of set organs; one with a penis
testes and sperm and the other with ovaries eggs and oviduct and a pouch or
receptacle for staring sperm of another snail. Snails copulate in pairs
exchanging spermatophore before separating. Both snails lay eggs two to three
weeks after mating.
Achatina: Achatina is highly
prolific being able to lay between 100 to 400 eggs in a single batch.
During favourable condition a single snail is capable of laying up to three
batches of eggs in one year. Incubation period lasts between 15 to 30 days
depending on the prevailing weather condition and environmental factors.