Government of India ratified Kyoto Protocol on climate change on 7th August 2002. Since then 186 countries and European Economic Council(EEC) had already ratified the Protocol. Under the Protocol India is not required to reduce emission of green house gases. Under the Protocol basically the develop countries were required to reduce emissions of GHG by an average of 5.2 percent below 1990 level by 2012. According to the Government of India, India will benefit from transfer of technology and additional foreign investments as the result of Kyoto Protocol coming into force. Additional investment will come into renewable energy, energy generation and efficiency promotion and afforestation projects.
India has undertaken numerous response measures contributing to the objectives of UNFCC. Our development plans take care of balance economic development and environment concerns. In the recent years the reform in energy and power sector has enhanced the efficiency of energy use. Various measures relating to environment issues have be introduced. They include the following:
- Significant increase in the capacity of renewable energy installations.
- Improving the air quality in major cities by encouraging used of compressed natural gas (CNG). For instance the World's largest fleet of vehicles fuelled by compressed natural gas has been introduced in Delhi.
- Introduction of improved norms about vehicular pollution levels.
- Encouragement to afforestation.
Sectoral initiative has been started in this regards. For instance in coal sectors various measures for ensuring efficient use of coal. In oil sector various measures are being adopted to promote fuel efficiency and conservation. Regarding Hyper power the government's policy objective is to exploit the huge potential in India's northeast. At present, about 25% of the total installed capacity is accounted for by hydro. Government has been actively encouraging used of renewable energy including solar wind bio-gas, small hydro etc. in transport sectors a measure has been the upgradation of vehicular emission norms. In the industrial sector we find a significant improvement in the intensity of energy use in industries. Regarding afforestation and land restoration special initiatives have been started encouraging protection of existing forests, putting a check on the diversion of forest land for non-forestry purposes.