The desire to effect changes in the organizations can be planned of three main forms: gradual, incremental, and radical. However, organic changes exist and are not planned. Depending on the combination and the forms of changes, they can create zones of reform, youngness or revolution in the organization. The changes are necessary to the survival of the organization and affect the individuals predominantly. Changes exist where the individual is affected of indirect form, needing to be fit in the new organizational configuration, either by means of qualification technique, change of behavior, and until cultural adaptation. The organizations face a serious quandary when they are made use to move. In one side, they desire changes to remain themselves competitive, of another side resist the changes due to the desire to keep the stability. This resistance can immobilize them and even “to atrophy” them, not allowing the adaptation of the organization in the same speed of the transformations of the environment, in constant mutation. The changes can bring new challenges, new markets and new technologies, but also at the same time they can generate sources of instability and uncertainties. The transformations can involve relationships, productive or technological processes, organizational structure, mechanisms of coordination, people in the organization, and culture. Three main types of changes exist, according with the nature of input
the transformation in the organization: the planned incremental change, the radical change and the change not planned. Theplanned incremental change, orsystematic change, occurs with slow speed, and is considered more evolutionary then revolutionary. It does not affect to all the components of the organization at the same time, and the upheavals to the organization are limited. The radical change mainly concerns to the strategic changes that, typically, require changes in the structure and the organizational processes. The radical change also is considered a dramatic change, therefore it is, frequently, initiate in crisis times. The changes generally are planned but, also exist those emerged by means of planned or not foreseen processes. A change that is not planned and simply emerges or happens inadvertently, without having been systematically organized, is called organic change. This type of change tends to blossom informally, and denotes a relative absence of managerial orientation. In this type of change, the organization reacts to the stimulus of the environment with none or minimum action of planning on the part of its directive body. The dramatic changes are executed from the top of the hierarchic structure. The systematic change is generated laterally, normally assisted for consultants and members of staff
, and the organic change appears of the inferior levels of the hierarchy.
These three forces interact dynamically, each one of them inducing a “push” in the transformation process. The dramatic change stirs up the revolution, which produces impetus; the systematic change orchestrates a reform, that denotes order; and the organic change indicates youngness which stimulates the initiative. A planned process of organizational change can be systemized in twelve stages, that can occur in the following chronological order: [BR]1. Exploration of the environment and the internal conditions of the organization;[BR]2. Recognition of the difference (“gap
”) between the current conditions and the desired conditions; [BR]3. Perception and evaluation; [BR]4. Planning and analysis; [BR]5. Determination of the change objectives; [BR]6. Determination of the program and the tactics of change; [BR]7. “Unfreeze” of behaviors (to unlearn old ways to make the things and to learn new methods). For this, the people necessarily need to be informed on: - What is being moved; - Why the change is necessary; - What it is expected of the people; - Which will be the benefits for the people; - Which disadvantages or problems will be able to appear, and as they will be treated; - Which behavioral changes will be necessary for the performance in the new organizational structure; [BR]8. Evaluation of the change plan;
9. Adjustment or modification of the plan; [BR]10. Implementation of the plan;
11. Accompaniment of the implementation of the plan; [BR]12. “Freezing” and consolidation of the behaviors and attitudes (focused in the new way to make the things, through training, systems of incentive and others). An organization that desires to prevent problems must continue monitoring the efforts of change for a long time after the implementation. The continuous monitoring can disclose some problems, before becoming serious and requiring new radical changes.The involved people in the change process must be informed on the nature of the change proposal, and of that way the change will affect its lives. Resistance, confusion and anger feelings can be minimized by means of a correct strategy of communication, applied at the adequate moment.