Principles and Functions of Management
To start with it would be necessary to know what the term :’Management’ means and what it seeks to do or achieve.
We talk of managing a business, school, a Church, a Hospital, or even managing ines own home. In these activities we find that there are distinct ‘inputs’ and ‘outputs’. In business, the inputs are called ‘resources’ and these are categorized into four heads viz., men, money, machines, and materials. The resource of time is part of each of these four resources
Definition of Management :
PETER DRUCKER: Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and manages managers and manages workerers and work. It is an organ of society specifically charged with making resources productive, that is, with the responsibilities for organized economic advance.
The reason for the existence of a business enterprise is that it supplies economic goods and services. The business enterprise must discharge its economic responsibility so as to strengthen society, and in accordance of business enterprise, the vital principle that determines its nature, is economic performance ……… Every act, every decision, every deliberation of management has this as its first dimension.
Principles of Management:
A principle is a fundamental truth, or what is believed to be truth at a given time.
Theory of Management with definitions is explained above briefly. A theory is a systematic grouping of inter-related principles. It ties together, as it were, individual principles to give a meaningful framework of scientific knowledge.
A manager is the one who manages all the operations in his assigned functional area. He needs the organized knowledge of the science, that is the principles of Management.
(a) Management is a Process in the sense of a combined pattern of mental action and human behaviour; it is not per se an art, nor an in born aptitude, nor a technique, nor a science.
It can be looked upon as a process by which managers formulate, direct and operate organizations with the coordinated human efforts in order to achieve pre determined objectives. Management is a process of planning, executing and controlling the activities of an enterprise.A manager’s decisions and actions are primarily result-oriented or goal directed and there are a series of events and activities in succession by which the work of the of the enterprise proceeds towards a goal.
(b) Management as a Profession : Management is very much recognized as a profession.A professional is a person who has undergone a certain vigorous training to aquire a body of knowledge and develop certain skills with the objective of rendering a service to society.
Decision forms the essence of management, and this presupposes consideration and judgement preceding the decisions, as well as facts and data from which to judge.
The decision has to be carried into effect by the other people who, for this purpose may or may not have to be held under the jurisdiction of the manager; in either case, he has to solicit or attain their effective cooperation, which implies an inherent social facet to the process, and a need for social skills.
Actions relate to the Utilisation of resources. Since the resources concerned could be used in alternative ways, to achieve the specific objective, the choice of the best alternative becomes part of the basic decisions. The criterion of judgement being the relative outcome from any given allocation of resources.
The management process thus has an essential economic character in its primary concern for effective attainment of chosen or expected objectives within optimum or minimum use of resources.
The economic achievements can be ensured only by continuous review of the actions ensuing from the decisions, which means that the judgement and decision process recurs over and over again after evaluating the outputs with reference to the plan of actions (control function).
To maintain the recurrent action and intteraction is the crux of the responsibilities inherent in the management process.
The management process is future oriented by reason of its concern with planning, what is to be done and how it will be done.
Functions of Management:
The basic functions of the Management can be broadly categorized as,
Organising, Planning, Leading, Measuring and controlling, Framework
The kind of Behavior by a manager fosters atmosphere of trust, respect and confidence .This will help subordinates to perform their duties and achieving personnel aspiration .At certain times the manager as leader has to be tough hold people to high standards performance, disciplines wisely and occasionally using the power.
Measuring and Controlling
A manger has to measure his progress to obtain the objectives .If he finds the operation are not proceeding as per the plan he has to take corrective actions.
The Process of Management by William H Newman. Charles E Summer and
E Kirby Warren 1970 Edition
The Practice of Management by Peter f Drucker Reprinted 1997