Decommissioning and remediation activities are subject to some common driving forces that influence the
ability of decommissioning and remediation programmes to achieve end-states that correspond to planned or
anticipated (future) end-uses (i.e. facility or site re-use). In addition, decommissioning and remediation
programmes have common resource needs that can result in optimization of available resources to achieve
acceptable radiological risk based results faster and at lower costs.
In order to achieve this, it is necessary that the goals of individual decommissioning and remediation
activities are aligned and do not conflict with each other while costs are minimized and net health, safety,
security and environmental benefits are maximized. Managing the decommissioning and remediation activities
in an integrated programme can result in enhanced environmental conditions and/or reduced requirements for
additional remediation work, both of which impact the effort to achieve the ultimate site remediation objectives.
The most important step in this process is the establishment of the site remediation objectives, which
principally involves selecting the best re-use option for the site. Different technological approaches and different
sequences of decommissioning and remediation tasks can be taken to transform the site to achieve its intended
This report presents a framework in which decommissioning and remediation activities developed
altogether (i.e. in an integrated manner) will enhance the outcomes of both tasks.
To achieve this objective, this report addresses:
—Synergies between decommissioning and remediation;
—Life cycle management strategies to design and improve remedial actions;
—Planning tools to support decisions making and remediation
In addition, case studies that illustrate some of the concepts developed in this publication are presented.
Although the focus of this report is on nuclear facilities, the general principles of adopting an integrated
approach to planning for decommissioning and remediation apply to many other industrial facilities. The subject of this present report concerns the integration of decommissioning and remediation activities at sites
undergoing decommissioning and this fits within the first category of guidance documentation (strategy development).
Worldwide, there are thousands of nuclear facilities1, generally licensed and non-orphan, that will
ultimately require decommissioning2 and remediation3. They range from large nuclear power reactors and
complex processing facilities to small research laboratories, nuclear research establishments, uranium and
thorium mines, conversion plants, storage facilities and manufacturing plants. The tasks associated with
decommissioning a nuclear facility can also vary greatly. They may include large-scale decontamination works,
demolition of massive concrete structures or enclosing the facility in a safe condition so as to allow the
radioactivity to decay naturally to acceptable levels. At the other extreme, laboratories in which radionuclides
have been used may be decommissioned after some modest cleaning and decontamination activities. In all cases,
the decommissioning process must be well planned and sufficient resources must be available. Over time,
without proper arrangements being made for decommissioning, shut down facilities deteriorate and ultimately