Soil classification forms the basis for the ex-change and extension of research findings in soil science and for the modernization of management of soil resources. This paper systematically reviews the compatibility of the genetic soil classification of China (GSCC) and soil taxonomy (ST). This includes a study of the evolution and consummation of the GSCC and assessment of the databases and methods of the study. Using the 揝oil Species of China (six volumes) and some provincial soil species as the basic material, the authors gathered information from 2540 soil species. Based on the key described in ST, the 2540 soil species were taxo-nomically classified into corresponding soil orders, suborders, great groups and subgroups and then matched with corre-sponding map units in the 1︰1000000 digital soil map of China. Using the high-level classification units of the two soil classification systems, and the attributes of each soil species, the sizes of distribution areas were mapped. The soil distri-bution results were analyzed and compared statistically. The reference compatibility between the great groups used in GSCC system and the soil orders of the ST is discussed. It is believed that 20 great groups display maximum referencibil-ity >95% and 15 great groups depict maximum referencibil-ity in the range of 70%—95%, which can be cited as refer-ence benchmarks. The remaining 25 great groups are less compatible (with maximum referencibility <70%) and need further study, or require referencing at lower classification levels or at a regional level to help to improve the accuracy of the reference.