Location of the city. History of water management and water supply.
Bronx - it is the only district of the city located on the mainland (the rest of the islands).
The geological structure - rocks from the Holocene down to the rocks with more than 500 million years. Long Island - creates the Quaternary. In addition to Long Island we have the pieces pre-Cambrian and Cambrian and Ordovician. These are mostly gneiss. Rocks often overlook the old surface.
Summary of components - New York (1898):
► Manhattan (Hudson - R. Harlem - East River).
► Staten Island.
► Brooklyn (Long Island).
► Queens (Long Island).
Hudson - the river resembles the Vistula near Torun. The average flow is 600 m3 / s.
East River - 100 dozen m3 / s (about the same as Odra).
Appalachian Mountains - there are natural and artificial reservoirs.
1626 - settlement of New Amsterdam in Manhattan. Wall St. 1633.
1644 - British colony of New York. Water: streams, ponds, shallow wells.
1667 - Construction of the first well of the public (the pump) from Bowling Green.
1696 - Construction of the first sewerage (sewage + precipitation) - outlet to the nearest water body. Information about water getting my Brooklyn.
1776 - Construction of the first water reservoir at the White Street. The tank filled with water from wells and sources. Area 20 ha. Water flowed by gravity, wooden pipes along the main streets - 22 000 inhabitants. The first big fire of the city. 1799 - Manhattan Company activities - 1800 m. The construction of the reservoir at the Chambers St.., Water from wells. Consumption of water resources of the area does not solve the deficit quantity and water quality.
1830 - Construction of fire water storage tank at 13 St.
1835 - Great fire - burned 700 houses.
Followed the deterioration of the health status of groundwater and surface water. Frequent outbreaks of cholera and yellow fever. Epidemic cholera - 3,500 people. They began to seek solutions to these problems.
Water - the basis of:
► 3 lakes.
► 19 reservoirs.
► Groundwater. 3 lakes + 19 reservoirs have a total volume V = 2.2 km3.
The current water supply system - the two sub-basins where water is collected:
► fusion River Craton.
► catchment in the Catskill Mountains, and sink in the upper part of the Delaware River.
River Water System Craton - Craton system (water taken from a distance of 66 km).
04.07.1842 r. - Old Craton Aq. 66 km - 340 000 m3 / d (1820 - project, work from 1837). Reservoir with a capacity of 25 million m3.
Surge tanks - Central Park (Great Lawn), 42 St. (NY Public Library).
1885-1893 - New Craton Aqueduct
Tanks and firewall: New Craton Res., West Branch Res.
Catskill Mountains - Catskill system (160 km)
1915 - Ashokan R. - Catskill Aqueduct to the Kensico Res.
1928 - Schoahaire Res. - Shondeben Tunnel (25 km) to the Ashokan Res.
1928-1931. - A dispute NYC-New Jersey on the Delaware basin
Delaware system (200 km)
1944 - Delaware Aqueduct 75 km - Boyds Corner Res. 47 km - Kensico Res.
1950 - Rondout Res., 9 km north tunnel, a tunnel 37 km south, central tunnel, 67 km.
1954 - Neversink Res.
1955 - Pepacton Res. 530 million m3
1964 - Canasville Res.
Kensico Res. - Three buses to NYC.
Kensico Res. > Hillview Res. - 3 buses> NYC