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Shvoong Home>Science>Water-New York Part II Summary

Water-New York Part II

Academic Paper Summary   by:Renee1    
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This abstract was translated from Zaopatrzenie w wodę Nowego Yorku cz II
 
Urban infrastructure:
A. Water supply:
► 3 basins with an area of 3,773 km2, 19 tanks.
► 2 tanks Distribution (Hillview Park Jerome R. and R.).
► 4 mains water.
► 3 water tunnels.
► 2 great surge tanks underground.
► 8 pumping stations.
► 1911 068 network cables.
► 109 100 hydrants.
► 97% of the water flows by gravity to the public (this is a cheap solution).
► Daily delivery to 4mln m3
B. Sewer:
► 10 433 km sewerage network.
► 140 000 stormwater tanks.
In 1886 - founded the first wastewater treatment plant.

Hall valves (Van Cortland Park Valve Chamber in the Bronx) - This is the most important object in the water mains throughout NYC. It is situated at a depth of about 85 m.

Struktura abstraction:
► 1% - groundwater (aquifer Queens).
► 10% - Croton System.
► 39% - Catskill System.
► 50% - Delaware System.

Groundwater: aquifer Queens - 15 wells to 120 m below the surface - supplies for 350 000 inhabitants.

New York City Department of Environmental Protection
► Bureau of Water and Sewer Operations (BWSO):
● water distribution, operation and maintenance of the system, collecting storm water, natural drainage systems. Employment - 1400.
● Investment in water management of $ 350 million in 2004-2013.
● The protection of water catchments.
● Program to improve water quality.
● Water treatment.
● Monitoring of water quality (1000 points, 36900 samples).
● water-saving program.

In 2005 a new directive came into the surface water quality:
► The most important task is to protect against pathogens and microbial origin Criptosporidium Giardia. One method is to build the station to ultraviolet irradiation for the Catskill / Delaware. The Croton system, started the run in 2010-2011 of filter fields.
► Water Current: chlorination, fluorination since 1996 1ppm, orthophosphate - for creating a film on pipes to prevent release of metals (particularly lead

Water-saving program since 1989.:
► 630 meters in 2000.
► Electronic control of the network.
► Replace old toilet facilities.
► An educational program in schools.
► Restrictions: 1.x-3.III ban watering lawns and washing of sidewalks, the remainder of the year, on the hour from 1911 to 1919.

Saving water consumption resulted in a decrease in the last 10-year anniversary of 15%.

Daily consumption per capita:
► 1979 - 715 l / d.
► 2003 - 517 l / d.
Consumption for the utility is 303 l / d (approximately 80 gallons) - is three times as much as ours.

The price of water is 1.52 USD per ''100 feet ''cubic - or $ 0.54 per 1m3. At that price the monthly fee would be an inhabitant of Lublin £ 6.72 (currently - 37 zl).

Failures: Annually, about 600 major bus accident, and about 6,000 smaller ones. Causes are fatigue, activity in the vicinity of pipes (excavation, vibration, traffic, freezing the ground). There are so called. Leak Detection Unit, which monitors the network using sonar. It can detect small leaks of the order 4.3% of total consumption (in Poland - 30%).
Furthermore, quality monitoring is carried out coastal waters (sea and river) from the early twentieth century.
Published: February 06, 2011   
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