Stem cells are the origin cells of all the tissue and organs in our body.
These cells are ment to fix cells at any tissue or organ they are in, for example: blood, bone marrow, skin, muscle , the brain and liver.
The study in stem cells was done with several of the types - those originating from animals in embryo state and adult as well as human cells.
How does one produce stem cells from human origin?
Stem cells can be extracted from the umbilicus cord and the placenta without causing damage to the mother nor the child . if saved they can later be used to help in bone marrow and blood disease.
Embryo stem cells are also formed from a frozed fertilized egg after a test ture fertilization.
The donors are couples who doesn't want more children or the remaining fertelized eggs that are left.
the consent for the eggs is done from an awareness for the scientific use of them.
You need to remeber that embro stem cells are not taken from an embroy which is fertelized inside a woman's body.
The advantage of stem cells extracted in this way is that they can become or transform to any type of 'adult' (=multipotent) cells.
the disadvantage is that when injected for treatment, the immune system can reject them.
An important advantage for stem cells is in use for treatment for disease in the cell's donor.
the immune system won't reject them and therefor reduce the risk of the treatment.
The disadvantage of extracting 'adult' stem cells is that these cells went throu some kind of sorting and each cell can develop only according the its 'origin' for example: blood stem cells can only make blood cells.
never the less, the reseach on stem cells is bringing in a breakthrough : researches from minisota university, who received marrow bone from volunteer donors, found that marrow bone stem cells can be used in some labratory conditions develop to a different type of cell and therefor there potential grow.
The research of treatments using stem cells has only began to be a substantial force in recent years and in the following years more and more treatments will be clinicly tested.
In the future, doctors hope, we can use stem cells to treat genetic diseases, tissue damage and degenerative diseases among: spinal cord injury, parkinsows disease, stroke, diabetes, heart disease, poor circulation, Hemophilia, sickle cell anemia disease and muscular dystropy.