DIABETES Multidisciplinary treatment approachAbstractPeople are fearful when the word 'diabetes' is mentioned; fortunately diabetes is managed quite successfully with modern medicine, allowing people productive and happy lives. Diabetes is associated with obesity, diabetic retinopathy, loss of limbs in the elderly, and high blood sugar levels, requiring a strict dietary regime. Diabetes alters the digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Diabetes is a chronic disease, for which there is no cure. Modifying one's thinking, allaying fears in coping with the disease contributes to dealin with lifestyle changes imposed by diabetes.There are several forms of diabetes:- Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and Gestational diabetes.The metabolism of nutrients is altered with diabetes. Insulin is the hormone allowing glucose to enter the cells. The body is able to absorb glucose 10 times faster with the help of insulin, than without. Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase, which converts glucose to glycogen. This removes excess glucose from the blood, keeping the level of sugar balanced. Glucose enters the cells and is consumed as fuel. In the absence of insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream and does not enter the cells.
The body cannot utilise the glucose in the blood for energy leading to increased hunger. Excess levels of glucose in the blood cause the patient to urinate more, resulting in excessive thirst. The concentration of glucose in the blood determines how much insulin or glucagon is released. Within 10 years of diagnosis, the insulin producing cells of the body are completely destroyed, no further insulin is produced. Diabetes is not one disease, rather a general term for agroup of disorders resulting from the body's inefficiency in using glucose. In general, all individuals with diabetes have insulin problems. SymptomsIncreased thirst (Polydipsia); and urination (Polyuria); weight loss and increased appetite (Polyphagia); blurred vision; nausea and vomiting;confused thinhing; abdominal pain; fatigue; recurring infections and amenorrhea are the initaial symptoms of diabetes. The symptoms of diabetes are not always apparent, some people may not know they have the disease.