Cosmos was a name applied to a number of Soviet artificial satellite programs. Most of those programs were related to military functions. The first Cosmos, however, had a scientific payload. It was launched from the Kapustin Yar space center on Mar. 16, 1962. Later that year, Vostok spacecraft modified for photographic reconnaissance were launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome under Cosmos designations, apparently in an attempt to conceal their true purpose, as were subsequent Moon-bound spacecraft trapped in parking orbits and unmanned tests of Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft. Western observers, however, were generally able to distinguish the different Soviet programs and to identify most of the following satellite missions, a few of which were indeed scientific in nature. In January 1978, Cosmos 954 disintegrated over Canadian territory and spread radioactive debris across a sparsely populated area. The Intercosmos program was a cooperative scientific effort involving East European experiments launched on Soviet spacecraft, and the USSR also launched satellites for various other nations under that designation. The name Cosmos continues to be applied to various Russian satellite programs.