After reviewing the study on RS (remote sensing) monitoring soil moisture and drought, the article taking soil and vegetation as the study objects, discusses the present status and development trend in band use of visiblenear infrared, thermal infrared, microwave band in domestic and abroad, according to the principle of RS (remote sensing) monitoring soil moisture and drought, and makes an emphasis on the detailed discuss on the development and trend of arithmetic of microwave monitoring soil moisture. Based on the summary of experimental methods and principle of remote sensing monitoring soil moisture in domestic and abroad, the authors discusses the emphasis and difficulties at present and future development direction in the field of remote sensing monitoring soil moisture. The remote sensing monitoring on soil moisture is a complicated indirect process: many factors, such as the choice of bands, variable and characteristics of the sensor and so on is critical to the monitoring for soil moisture; the properties and of soil, the differential of the landform, climate change and human being's soil management all affect the soil moisture in different degree, and the characteristics of the land surface is correlative with soil moisture in some degree. So the improved thermal inertia and CSWI(crop short water index)method are the mature methods of remote sensing monitoring soil moisture methods. The extensive application of GIS technology, the optimization of the model of remote sensing monitoring of soil moisture and the application of microwave are the key direct of future study.