The key management of soil and water loss by taking the “Yangtze River harness” project as mainstay in the Yangtze River basin has been promoted quickly for ten years since “Law of Soil and Water Conservation” was issued and implemented. Up to the end of 2000 , the accumulative soil and water loss area under preliminary control was reached 210 thousand km 2, in which there is 68 thousands km 2 under the “Yangtze River harness” project after 12 years implementation. Supervision and law enforcement of soil and water have been continuously enhanced, the law enforcement team with 7 000 full time supervision staffs has been established, complete system in implementation of soil and water conservation has been preliminarily set up and perfected. More than 6 800 cases of artificially causing soil and water loss under development and construction projects have been placed on file for investigation and prosecuted. There have more than 41 000 soil and water conservation plans been checked and approved, over 35 million Yuan of soil and water loss management fee been paid by development and construction units and compensation fee of over 37 million Yuan. Self motivated investment of soil and water loss protection and management has accumulated more than 670 million Yuan, and a lot of good experiences have been obtained which are valuable to disseminate.