Focus on the damland in Hegou watershed, the soil characteristics of the damland were analysed. The results show that: (1) Soil section in damland alternates clay layer and loam layer with rhyme, the clay is upper and loam is lower, not upper layer is loose and lower is tight.The physical clay particle content of the clay layer is 55%~60%,and that of the loam layer is 35%~50%. The thickness of clay layer get smaller and smaller from upper reaches to lower reaches. (2) The soil bulk density, water holding capacity and moisture of absorption in damland is obviously higher than those in yuanmian (viz. upper table) and slope, while the stable water infiltration rate is lower than that in yuanmian and slope. (3) The water content in damland is higher than that in yuanmian and slope , and it increases from damhead to damtail.The dynamic changes of soil water is directly related to precipitation, which in July to September is bigger, especially in the damtail, the damland is often water logged or forms grassy marshland. (4) The nutrient content of the dam silt soil is less than yuanmian and slope,the total nitrogen, quick acting nitrogen ,quick phosphorus and organic matter of silt are much lower, and they decrease from damhead to damtail. Therefore, the damland is liable to water logging and lack of quick acting nutrient, especially nitrogen. It is suggested that adopting effective drainage measures, strengthening sunning the upturned soil in spring, paying attention to applying fertilzer, especialy to nitrogenous fertilizer, so as to ensure high and stable yield of the damland, especially initial planting stage.