Chapter 6 - Tour of the Cell
A Panoramic View of the Cell
1. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Prokatyotic cells have membrane bound organelles whereas eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope
2. Explain why there are both upper and lower limits to cell size.
3. Explain the advantages of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells.
The Nucleus and Ribosomes
4. Describe the structure and function of the nuclear envelope, including the role of the pore complex.
Nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus separating its contents from the cytoplasm. It is a double membrane each a lipid bilayer, perforated by pores. An intricate protein structure called a pore complex lines each pore and regulates the entry and exit of certain large macromolecules and particles
5. Briefly explain how the nucleus controls protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
Nucleus contains most of the genes in eukaryotic cells. Proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with rRNA in the nucleolus and then these subunits then exit the nucleus through the nuclear pores, into the cytoplasm, where a large and a small subunit assemble into a ribosome. Ribosomes, made of rRNA and protein, then carry out protein synthesis
6. Explain how the nucleolus contributes to protein synthesis.
7. Describe the structure and function of a eukaryotic ribosome.
Conduct protein sythesis
8. Distinguish between free and bound ribosomes in terms of location and function.
Free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol while bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope
Free ribosomes function within the cytoso
Bound ribosomes generally make proteins that are destined either for insertion into membranes, packaging within certain organelles, or for export from the cell.
The Endomembrane System
9. List the components of the endomembrane system, and describe the structure and functions of each component.
Nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various vacuoles, and the plasma membrane
Structure and functions of all above
10. Compare the structure and functions of smooth and rough ER.
11. Explain the significance of the cis and trans sides of the Golgi apparatus.
12. Describe three examples of intracellular digestion by lysosomes.
13. Name three different kinds of vacuoles, giving the function of each kind.
Other Membranous Organelles
14. Briefly describe the energy conversions carried out by mitochondria and chloroplasts.
15. Describe the structure of a mitochondrion and explain the importance of compartmentalization in mitochondrial function.
16. Distinguish among amyloplasts, chromoplasts, and chloroplasts.
17. Identify the three functional compartments of a chloroplast. Explain the importance of compartmentalization in chloroplast function.
18. Explain the roles of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells.
19. Describe the functions of the cytoskeleton.
20. Compare the structure, monomers, and functions of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
21. Explain how the ultrastructure of cilia and flagella relates to their functions.
Cell Surfaces and Junctions
22. Describe the basic structure of a plant cell wall.
23. Describe the structure and list four functions of the extracellular matrix in animal cells.
24. Explain how the extracellular matrix may act to integrate changes inside and outside the cell.
25. Name the intercellular junctions found in plant and animal cells and list the function of each type of junction.