Thinking ability is a complex set of skills that can be trained from an early age. Thinking is an active process that is dynamic in the context of the formation of ideational meaning, forming an opinion, and conclusion. .
Abstract thought is one kind of intelligence is the ability of an attribute.intelligence is the ability to think abstractly. Abstract thinking ability is an important aspect of intelligence, but not the only one.
Aspect emphasized in the ability to think abstractly is the effective use of the concepts and symbols in dealing with various special situations in solving a problem.
Abstract thinking skills can not be separated from knowledge of the concept, because thinking requires the ability to imagine or describe objects and events that are physically not always exist. People who have good abstract thinking ability will be able to easily understand abstract concepts better.
So the ability to think abstractly is the ability to find solutions without the presence of objects that are real problems in the sense that students engaged in symbolic or imaginative thinking on the issue object. To solve an abstract problem can easily be done by people who have a high abstract thinking skills and capability can be achieved by children who have reached the formal operational stage is good.
Abstract thinking ability in this study are measured using tests of abstract thinking ability, which is subtest (battery) from the differential Aptitude Test (DAT). This test consists of eight subtest, namely:
a. Verbal reasoning. Subtest verbal reasoning (verbal reasoning) is an aptitude test that revealed an ability to understand concepts in the form of words (verbal). This test aims to assess students' ability to abstract (summarizing) or generalize and think constructively compared with the certainty or the introduction of the word is especially appropriate to disclose the reasoning abilities.
b. Numerical ABILITY. Grains of ability test questions designed to reveal the number of digits and facilitate the understanding of relationships in dealing with the concepts according to the figures. The issues have been prepared in this type of problem which is usually called "arithmetic" rather than what is usually called the arithmetic reasoning. This was driven by a desire to avoid the elements of language which is usually a problem of arithmetic reasoning, where the ability to read has a very significant role. Form of benefit calculation and therefore will not harm as a measure of ability.
c. Abstract reasoning. Abstract reasoning test is intended as an instrument that expresses non-verbal reasoning abilities of students. The circuit is presented in each issue that needs to change the perception of the operation principle in the diagrams. For example students should find the principles or the principles that determine changes in the drawings and provide signs or cues that can be comprehended by showing (marked) diagrams that should iikuti logically.
d. Clerical speed and accuracy. Clerical speed and accuracy test is intended to measure the speed of answer or response in a simple perceptual task first student must choose a combination that has been marked in the test, then going to blaze a mind to find the same combination in a group on the same combination answers image separately, and the last to be found a combination that is identical under the given line.
e. Mechanical reasoning. Mechanical reasoning tests are basically a new form of a series of mechanical comprehension test (Mechanical Comprehension Test) which had been prepared previously by one of the authors. Each question contains a mechanical situation presented in the form of images at once along with the question wording simple. Questions sought to be presented using terms that were simple and often encountered on the machines or equipment that does not resemble the pictures in books or tests require specialized knowledge. In mechanical reasoning test is required as far as possible the proper and logical reasoning. This test is based on the experience of the Bennett mechanical comprehension test.
f. Space relations. Type of problem are planned for this test presents a combination of the two previous approaches to the measurement of this ability. The ability to imagine an object that is constructed from an image in a pattern that has been often used in a test of structural visualization. Similarly, the ability to imagine how an object would appear if rotated around in a few specific ways that have been used effectively in the measurement of perception of space.
g. Spelling. Type of questions used in the spelling on subtest use of language is not the type of new questions. His words were carefully selected. All of the words selected from a list of Gate's Spelling Difficulties in 3876 words. Other words were selected as they highlight an editorial in any vocabulary. Spelling is not right or wrong is selected from the research, Gates and other people. Subtest spelling measure how well a person can spell common words in the Indonesian language (English). Also, this test score is the best predictor of the ability to learn shorthand and typing
h. Language usage. Language usage test consists of two sub, namely; spelling and grammar. This test consists of two short learning achievement tests that measure important abilities that need to be considered by a person, together with other aptitude tests that assessed by differences in aptitude tests.