Microbiology and breeding history
Microbiology is the study of living organisms are so small that can not be seen with the naked eye but with the help of a microscope.These tiny organisms called microorganisms, or sometimes referred to as microbes, or microorganisms.
The world of microorganisms composed of 5 groups of organisms, namely bacteria, protozoa, viruses, algae, and fungi.Microorganisms are very closely related to everyday life. Some are beneficial and others detrimental. Microorganisms that are useful include: who inhabit the body (normal flora), some microorganisms involved in food fermentation processes: the manufacture of cheese, wine, yogurt, tempeh / oncom, soy sauce, etc., the production of penicillin, as a biocontrol agent, and which relates to the process sewage treatment. Harmful microorganisms, among others, which often leads to various diseases (animals, plants, humans), including: bird flu that recently shook the world, including Indonesia, which is caused by one type of microorganism is a virus. In addition, there are also several types of microorganisms that can cause environmental pollution.
Origin of Life microorganisms
The origin of life begins with a penchant microorganisms a scientist named Leeuwenhoek observed microorganisms on which the rain water, sea water, and dirt gear. It turns out the various materials were found microorganisms, including protozoa, yeasts, and bacteria. Although at that time, only use this type of microscope Leeuwenhoek is very simple.
Then developed, the emergence of microorganisms derived from the decomposition of plant tissues / animals that have died or in other words life comes out of nowhere and come from dead matter, so known by the theory of spontaneous generation: abiogenesis (abio: not living, genesis: the origin). The theory is strengthened by evidence that the meat left to rot will produce maggots.
However, this theory can be broken by Francesco Redi, et al.through some experiments that he did, thus developing a new theory known as spontaneous generation: biogenesis which states that life comes from living material. It is proved that the maggots on rotting meat that does not occur suddenly and come from dead matter. However, the flies attracted by rotting flesh, and then lay their eggs on the cloth that covered the meat, then grow maggots. Theory eventually rose again refuted by some figures which states that microorganisms did not occur suddenly.The characters include: John Needham, Lazzaro Spallanzani.Meanwhile, John Tyndall and Louis Pasteur are the characters who give the final refutation of the theory of spontaneous generation to prove the fermentation process, stating that the microorganisms can only appear or arise as a result of the activity of other microorganisms.
Currently the information obtained from the microbiology major contribution, especially in monitoring infectious diseases. In addition, microorganisms have been used to study various biochemical processes are known to occur also in higher life forms. Many facts about the human metabolism is known now known to occur early in microorganisms. Similarly, the technology that is now being popular, eg, Genetic Engineering, which is nothing but the development of molecular genetics that explain how genes regulate cell activity. All of this comes from the study of microorganisms.
Thus, the field of microbiology is not only the study of the causes of disease but it is a study of all biological activity of microorganisms. Expected in the future, can control genetic disorders and diseases such as cancer. In addition, also expected to obtain different varieties of animal / plant quality (rapid harvest, disease resistance, and high productivity).