refers to crossing of different types or lines to produce a new type with improved characters. This is done by collecting and putting the pollen grains from one genotype, (the male ) on to the stigma of the other genotype (the female ).the seeds as well as the progeny from a cross are referred to as F1
. The progeny of the F1 are known as the segregating generations.
The early evidence of hybridization dates back to 700 B.C. when the Babylonians and Assyrians hand pollinated date palm to obtain metaxenia effect. The first artificial hybrid
was produced by Thomas Fairchild (1717) by crossing sweet William (Dianthus barbatus) with carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus). Later a lot of scientists especially Joseph koelreuter made a number of crosses in tobacco. Thomas Andrew Knight developed several varities of apples, pears, peaches, and grapes during 1759-1835. G.J.Mendel(1865) from his simple hybridization experiments established the laws of inheritance using garden pea as his experimental material. He studied the inheritance
of seven different pairs of contrasting characters but unlike other scientists considered only one pair of character at a time due to which he was succussful in observing the segregation of characters in the offsprings.
. He pooled the data of many similar crosses, analysed the results and found that traits of both the parents reappeared in the offsprings in a definite ratio of 3:1. The laws of inheritance are laws of segregation
and laws of independent assortment. Dominance of characters
is not a law as considered by most scientists but is rather a phenomenon. mendel is considered as father of genetics. though his work was not recognized at that time his work was rediscovered by three scientists from three different countries while working independently on heredity of plants. These were Hugo De Vries (Holland), Karl Correns (Germany) and Eric Von Tschermak(Austria). The laws of inheritance also hold good for the animal kingdom.