Today, i will share my college note about ionic and covalent bonds.
Hydrogen, methane, sodium chloride and magnesium bromide are commom chemical substances, the former two molecules have covalent bonding and the latter two have ionic linkage. Each atom in the molecule or ions have two or eight electrons in the most outer shell (octet rule).
Covalent and Ionic Bond Nomenclature
The keys rules recommended by the international Union and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are summarized as follows:
Choose as parent carbon skeleton the largest sequences of C atoms that contain the principal functional group. Name the parent structure using the name of the alkane that contains the same number of C atoms as the chosen structure. Replace –ane by –ene for double bond or –yne for triple bond.
If a functional group is present, drop the final –e and add suffixes as follows:
-ol for alcohol (R-OH)
-al for aldehyde (R-CHO)
-one for ketone (R-COR’)
-oic acid for acid (R-COOH’)
-oate for ester (R-COOR’)
Use prefixes in alphabetic order to denote other subtituents. Locate subtituents and point of unsaturation by numbering the C atoms of the parent skeleton with the following criteria used in decreasing order of priority:
a. Assign the C atom of the principal functional group the number 1 if it is terminal.
b. Assign numbers so that the location of the principal functional group is as low as possible if the group is nonterminal.
c. Assign numbers so that the subtituents are located by the lowest possible numbers. If there are two kinds of subtituents, give low-number-preference to the first name.
If an attached side chain bears subtituents, it must be numbered, starting with the C atom which is attached to the parent carbon skeleton.