There are so many methods
to defining acids and bases. Example Antoine Lavoisier, Humphry Davy, and Justus Liebig. but they
did not definitions acid and base in theory. And then :1. Svante Arrhenius, give definition of acid and base : a. acids is produce H+ ions in aqueous
solutions ( water ), b.bases is produce OH- ions in aqueous
solutions (water ). 2. Johannes Nicolaus
Brønsted - Thomas Martin Lowry : a. acids are proton donors, b. bases are proton acceptors. and 3. Gilbert
Newton Lewis : a. acids are electron pair acceptors, b. bases are electron pair donorsProperties of Acids :1. taste sour (don't taste
them!)... the word 'acid' comes from the Latin acere, which
means 'sour', 2. acids change litmus (a blue
vegetable dye) from blue to red, 3. their aqueous (water) solutions
conduct electric current (are electrolytes), 4. react with bases to form salts
and water, revolve hydrogen gas (H2)
upon reaction with an active metal (such as alkali metals, alkaline earth
metals, zinc, aluminum). and the Properties of Bases : a. taste bitter (don't taste
them!), b. feel slippery or soapy (don't
arbitrarily touch them!), c. bases don't change the color of
litmus; they can turn red (acidified) litmus back to blue, d. their aqueous (water) solutions
conduct and electric current (are electrolytes), e. react with acids to form salts
this is the examples Acids : a. citric acid (from certain
fruits and veggies, notably citrus fruits), b. ascorbic acid (vitamin C, as from certain fruits), c. vinegar (5% acetic acid), d. carbonic acid (for carbonation
of soft drinks), e.lactic acid (in buttermilk). the examples Bases : a. detergents, b. soap, c. lye (NaOH), d. household
how naming and the formulas of some acids and
bases? we can devide acid with Binary
Acids and ternary acids. A binary compound consists of two elements.Binary acids have the
prefix hydro in front of the full name of the nonmetallic
element. They have the ending -ic. Examples include hydrochloric
and hydrofluoric acid.
Examples :a. Hydrofluoric Acid – HF, b. Hydrochloric Acid – HCl, c. Hydrobromic Acid – HBr, d. Hydroiodic Acid – HI,e. Hydrosulfuric Acid - H2S. Ternary
Acids commonly contain hydrogen, a nonmetal, and oxygen. The name of the most
common form of the acid consists of the nonmetal root name with the -ic ending,
The acid containing one less oxygen atom than the most common form is
designated by the -ous ending. An acid containing one less
oxygen atom than the -ous acid has the prefix hypo- and
the -ous ending. The acid containing one more oxygen than the
most common acid has the per- prefix and the -ic ending.
Examples :a. Nitric Acid - HNO3, b. Nitrous Acid - HNO2, c. Hypochlorous Acid – HclO d. Chlorous Acid - HClO2 e. Chloric Acid - HClO3
we can see the different between Strong
Acid or Strong Base by see the
dissociate in water. Strong electrolytes
are completely dissociated into ions in water. The acid or base molecule does
not exist in aqueous solution, only ions. Weak electrolytes are incompletely
dissociated. Strong Acids completely dissociate in water, forming H+ and an anion. There
are six strong acids. The others are considered to be weak acids. You should
commit the strong acids to memory:
HCl - hydrochloric acid b.
HNO3 - nitric acid c.
H2SO4 - sulfuric acid d.
HBr - hydrobromic acid e.
HI - hydroiodic acid
HClO4 - perchloric acid
isn't true as solutions become more concentrated. If the acid is 100%
dissociated in solutions of 1.0 M or less, it is called strong. Sulfuric acid
is considered strong only in its first dissociation step.
H+ + HSO4-
Weak Acids only
partially dissociates in water to give H+ and the anion.
Examples of weak acids include hydrofluoric acid, HF, and acetic acid, CH3COOH.
Weak acids include: Molecules that contain an ionizable proton. A molecule
wih a formula starting with H usually is an acid. Organic acids containing one or more carboxyl group,
-COOH. The H is ionizable. Anions with an ionizable proton.
(e.g., HSO4- --> H+ + SO42-), Cations ( transition metal cations, heavy metal cations with high
charge, NH4+ dissociates
into NH3 + H+) Strong Bases dissociate 100% into the cation and OH- (hydroxide ion). The
hydroxides of the Group I and Group II metals usually are considered to be
strong bases.LiOH - lithium hydroxide,NaOH - sodium hydroxide, KOH - potassium hydroxide, RbOH - rubidium hydroxide, CsOH - cesium hydroxide, *Ca(OH)2 -
calcium hydroxide, *Sr(OH)2 -
strontium hydroxide, *Ba(OH)2 -
* These bases
completely dissociate in solutions of 0.01 M or less. The other bases make
solutions of 1.0 M and are 100% dissociated at that concentration. There are
other strong bases than those listed, but they are not often encountered. Examples of weak bases
include ammonia, NH3, and diethylamine, (CH3CH2)2NH. Most weak bases are anions of
weak acids. Weak bases do not furnish OH- ions
by dissociation. Instead, they react with water to generate OH- ions.