/* Style Definitions */
The sheer diversity of life is of intrinsic value. It not
only provides a foundation for the continued existence of a healthy planet but
also our welfare.
believe that ecosystems rich in biodiversity gain resilience and are able to
recover readily from drought or human induced habitat degradation.
ecosystems are diverse, it has been observed that there are many pathways for
primary production and ecological processes such as nutrient cycle.
Consequently, if one is damaged or destroyed an alternative path may be used
and the system can continue working as usual.
occupy about 20 percent of the world’s land area. They are home to about 10
percent of its population and possess a great diversity of flora and fauna.
exhibit diversification in age and distribution although one may find them from
the humid coasts to the dry interior regions. They include a wide range of
microclimates and ecosystems such as rainforests, grasslands, tundra, bare
rocks and glaciers.
mountains as dead monolithic rocks, unchanging and impregnable. However, they
are realizing now that mountains are magnificent ecosystem, offering various
services to each and its inhabitants.
are as fragile as any other ecosystems in the world. They have unique
biodiversity as well as cultural biodiversity.
diversity and cultural diversity go simultaneously in some mountainous regions.
For example, in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, each region’s diverse ethnic
groups grow their own variety of forests and spices.
possess endemic species of repositories of genetic diversity. They have more lichens
and ferns than lowlands. Actually, plants and animals have been reported above
5000 meter. In addition, mountains act as critical corridors for migrating
of flora and fauna are lost in the valleys and plains being unable to bear the
pressure from development activities. However, until now mountains have
functioned as a sanctuary for a variety of flora and fauna.
forests are of paramount importance for human survival. Both highland and
lowland communities throughout the world rely on mountain forests for their
physical, cultural and economical survival.
mountains slopes not only help reduce soil erosion but also prevent landslides,
avalanches, and flooding. Mountain forests ensure that highland and lowland communities
have reliable supply of safe water. They can be sources of food, fuel, fibers
is very significant for preserving and maintaining nature’s ecosystem. It
includes the variety of plants, animals, micro organism, the genes they contain
and the ecosystems they form.
are conducive to great diversity which is the building block of the
agricultural system in marginal environment. People can use this biodiversity
to create integrated and robust ways of producing food which is essential for
biodiversity found in mountain forests is significant for its commercial
potential. Moreover, each species plays a specific role in maintaining a
vibrant as well as stable ecosystem.
and corn of today also exist in a wild state. The farmers of Andes often
tolerate undomesticated ancestral plants even in their own fields in order to
encourage cross-fertilization between domesticated and wild varieties,
resulting in new ones and increased biodiversity.
between wild and domesticated varieties has been observed in Ethiopia for
sorghum. In the beans fields of central Africa, the rate of cross-fertilization
among different varieties sharing the same plot of land is about 4 percent. Due
to cross- fertilization, beans with new characteristics appear, and farmers
plant them separately in order to document their characteristics.
Himalayan region, domestic and wild varieties of common orange and mango trees
often grow simultaneously. Actually, wild and domestic trees fertilize each
other, blending their genes, thereby supporting increased biodiversity.
seeds have been continually lost since the past century. They represent a kind
of still life of the world’s agricultural biodiversity refrigerated in the gene
banks, which are mostly located in the plains.
conservation of local varieties in farmer’s fields is threatened by modern
agricultural practices. It has been found out that even the resource has not
provided proper consideration to the utilization of local genetic materials.
Nepal has a quintessential mountain
environment. It has more than 2,000 indigenous varieties of rice, including
local farmers, of the 75 traditional varieties inventoried in Pokhare valley,
17 have already been lost. These farmers argue that there are another 47
varieties which are in the process of being lost. They are of the opinion that
some of these varieties are only found in Nepal.
Nepal has indigenous species of
cucumbers, cowpeas, garlic, gourds, mustard, peppers, pumpkins, and tomatoes.
However, due to increasing commercial seed distribution network here, the
native variety of species is being lost day by day.
made it clear that corn originated in the mountains. It has been found out that
in Mexico and Guatemala, traditional and wild varieties of corn have been
mountainous region, the most distinct division of labor is in regard to
management of genetic resources which is usually done by women. In most
mountain communities, women are guardians of seeds. Therefore, if they are well
trained, they can play a vital role in protecting the mountain diversity in