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Shvoong Home>Science>Engineering>OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF CENTRIFUGAL AND RECIPROCATING PUMPS Summary

# OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF CENTRIFUGAL AND RECIPROCATING PUMPS

Article Summary   by:chinnuraj     Original Author: CHINNURAJ

Operating principles of pumps Hydraulic machines which convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy are called pumps. Hydraulic energy is present in the form of pressure energy. Centrifugal Pumps If the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by means of centrifugal force acting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called centrifugal pump. The centrifugal pump acts as a reverse of an inward radial flow reaction turbine. That is, the flow in centrifugal pumps is in the radial outward directions. The centrifugal pump works on the principle of forced vortex flow which means that when a certain mass of liquid is rotated by an external torque, the rise in pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid takes place. The rise in pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid is proportional to the square of tangential velocity of the liquid at that point. Thus at the outlet of the impeller where radius is more, the rise in pressure head will be more and the liquid will be discharged at the outlet with a high pressure head. Due to the high pressure head, the liquid can be lifted to a high level. Efficiencies: a) Manometric efficiency: The ratio of manometric head to the head imparted by the impeller to the water is known as manometric efficiency. b) Mechanical efficiency: The ratio of the power available at the impeller to the power at the shaft is known as the mechanical efficiency.
c) Overall efficiency: it is defined as the ratio of the power output of the pump to the power input to the pump. It is the product of manometric efficiency and mechanical efficiency. Reciprocating Pumps If the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by sucking the liquid into a cylinder in which a piston is reciprocating (moving backwards and forwards), which exerts the thrust on the liquid and increases its hydraulic energy, the pump is called reciprocating pump. In a single acting reciprocating pump, a piston moves backwards and forwards in a close fitting cylinder. The movement of the piston is obtained by connecting the piston rod o crank by means of a connecting rod. The crank is rotated by means of an electric motor. Suction and delivery pipes with suction valve and delivery valve are connected to the cylinder. These valves allow water to flow in one direction only (one way valves). Suction valve allows water from suction pipe to the cylinder while delivery valve allows water from cylinder to delivery pipe only.
Published: February 09, 2008
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