Physicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, scholar Italian, born in Pisa. He is the father of the experimental method and dynamic. He highly relevant studies on the movement of the grave and discovered the law of the isochronism of the pendulum. He taught mathematics at Pisa and Padua, and attended the court of Cosmic II, the Medici, as a "philosopher." He built the first telescope of great power and with this extraordinary telescope made astronomical discoveries, among which the account of Jupiter''s satellites (planets de Medici), the phases of Venus, the seas of the moon, the sun spots defended theories Copernicus and therefore was subject to persecution by the Inquisition, defender of the Ptolemaic system. He was indicted and ordered not to pursue the defense system coperciano.
His name was Galileo Galilei. The Galileo case - as it became known - doubts and questions and stirred up controversy even today, some 370 years later, are far from disappearing. He left an indelible mark in the history of religion and science.
Galileo is considered by many as the "father of modern science." Using a telescope concluded that their astronomical observations supported a theory that was still widely debated in his day: that the Earth revolves around the Sun and therefore is not the center of the universe. For these and other findings, Galileo is also considered the pioneer of the modern experimental method.
As an astronomer, discovered among other things the satellites of Jupiter, that the Milky Way to be a cluster of stars, the mountains of the moon and the phases of Venus. As a physicist, studied the laws governing the pendulum and falling bodies. He invented instruments like the compass geometric (a kind of slide rule). Based on information received from the Netherlands, built a telescope that opened the universe to him.
But a prolonged confrontation with the ecclesiastical hierarchy became the career of the eminent scientist in a real drama - the Galileo case. In the late 16th century, Galileo has defended the Copernican theory, which states that the Earth revolves around the sun and not vice versa. This theory is also called the heliocentric system (which has the Sun as the center). In 1610, to discover with your telescope celestial bodies that have never been observed, Galileo became convinced he had found confirmation of the heliocentric system.
His intention was to convince "the highest figures of the age" (princes and cardinals), that the Copernican theory was correct. With the help of influential friends, he hoped to overcome the objections of the Church and even get their support.
In 1611, Galileo traveled to Rome, where he met with senior clerics and using the telescope, showed them their astronomical discoveries. However, things did not go as he expected. In 1616, Galileo was under the scrutiny of the Church.
For the theologians of the Inquisition, the heliocentric theory was an idea "foolish and absurd in philosophy and formally heretical, because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scripture, with regard to its literal sense, traditionally accepted exposure and understanding of the Church Fathers and doctors of theology. "
Galileo met with Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, considered the greatest Catholic theologian of that time and called "the hammer of heretics". Bellarmine formally admonished Galileo to stop promoting the theory of heliocentrism.
Thus, we tried to be more cautious, however, has not abandoned the theory of Copernicus. Seventeen years later, in 1633, appeared in court of the Holy Office. At this point, Cardinal Bellarmine had died, but now the main opponent of Galileo was Pope Urban VIII that previously he had been favorable. Many writers have classified this trial as one of the most infamous and unjust of antiquity, comparing it even with the trials of Socrates and Jesus.
The reason for his conviction was the publication of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Maxima, who defended the heliocentric theory. The author was ordered to appear in court in 1632, but Galileo delayed because he was sick and had almost 70 years. He traveled to Rome the following year, after being summoned and threatened with arrest. By order of the pope, was questioned and even threatened with torture.
Galileo was sentenced in a stark room before the inquisitors to June 22, 1633. He was found guilty of "having supported and believed false doctrine and contrary to the Holy and Divine Scriptures, the Sun. . . not move from east to west and that the earth moves and not the center of the world. "
Not wanting to be a martyr, Galileo was forced to recant. After the sentencing, the old scientist, kneeling penitent and clothing, said solemnly: "abjure, curse and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies [Copernican theory], and generally any other error, heresy and sect contrary to Holy Church . "
Tradition - for which there is no solid proof - that after abjuring, Galileo put his foot down and cried in protest: "And yet it moves!" The humiliation to renounce his findings, the scientist distressed for the rest of his days. He was sentenced to jail, but the penalty was replaced for the house arrest until his death. By losing the sight was almost in seclusion.