In facing the threat of new disasters and violence in America and in preparing for the challenges of the future, it is beneficial to present examples of the traumatic effects of disaster on children in other parts of the world. In this chapter, a summarization of information is presented of clinical observations on the effects of war and trauma on children. Three clinical studies are summarized from disasters in Soviet Armenia that include: a summary of child survivors of a 1988 catastrophic earthquake; child refugees of war; and a comparative study of children from the war and earthquake zones. Reactions to disasters and violence are presented from preschool children, school children 5 through 7 years old, school children 8 through 12 years old, and adolescents. Children of all ages, in their reactions to traumatic events, attempt to master anxieties that the events create. Children attempt to define the experiences in the context of schemas, make them manageable, and master them. Understanding children’s emotional reactions to natural and man-made disasters prepares mental health professionals and teachers to the challenges of the unknown future.