The human being always brought with itself the "anguish of the origins". That feeling type is reflected in the classic questions: "where I came from ?, where I will go?, who I am? " Archeological studies demonstrate that since quite remote times the man already worry in attributing superior forces to the phenomena that he could not explain. That inherent "anguish" to the man the result of the recognition of his limitations is due to the natural forces (the wind, the sea, the sun, etc.) done conjugate with the emergence of the conscience, that developed various questions, such as life it "exists after the death? " or "which the purpose of the life? ". The man did never supply satisfactory answers for these questions, objectively. But, to relieve the conscience, the man started to use of a powerful instrument capable to settle any doubts: the faith! For the faith, the man could answer the all of the subjects and the development of the religions and of the occultism he has a narrow bow with those disturbing inquiries.
The first men became separated in two groups: the group of the agricultural ones and the nomads'' group. To the agricultural ones it fit to worship the earth and to learn to receive the fruits of the same. The agricultural tribes were constituted of men that noticed at a place and they attributed to the earth that fed them, a series of divine powers. as they didn''t understand the mechanisms of the planting, of the growth and of the fructification, just like today we met them, they attributed divine powers to the Great Mother, the earth, for the abundance. From agricultural people happened all of the feminine myths that were brought us as inheritance since immemorial times (for example, Ísis, the Egyptian goddess of the fertility).
The nomads didn''t have fixed rooms and they lived much more of the hunt and of that they could plunder of the agricultural ones. They didn''t have the same work to the earth that the agricultural ones and their cults were very different. They admired the stars and they believed that the true gods populated the skies. Of the nomadic people the warlike and conquering gods came, besides the idea usually spread that "god is in the sky."
Of the observations of the firmament several faiths appeared, gods and until the temple, sacred space where followers meet for their rituals.
The term "TEMPLUM" happened of an imaginary quadrilateral that the old priests drew in the sky, taking as reference certain stars of the firmament. What happened inside of that quadrilateral was reason of analysis and forecast: clouds, flight of the birds, etc. With the time, it was projected that space in the ground and there they were made the forecasts. Walls were built in the perimeter of the quadrilateral and above them, the roof.
The term "FANUM" that that is inside of the temple acts, sacred. "PROFANUN", consequently, acts what is out, in other words, the no sacred. The own SACRED term comes from Latin SACER, that means marked place, delimited.
In the course of time, the religions went changing and, with those changes, there were alterations of the dogmas and of the adoration objects. In the beginning, the sun, the stars, the wind, the storm and other natural phenomena could be considered divinities, but the evolution of the knowledge took charge of changing a lot of faiths.
The first religious manifestations were linked to the primitive ANIMISM. In that practice, the old ones believed that, behind forces - today known and considered natural - there were occult gods. The animists worshipped as gods the sky, the moon, the sun, the animals, etc.
The Animism developed for TOTEMISM, that is characterized:
the) For a certain group human''s narrow connection (CLAN) to a species animal or vegetable or, still, the a class of objects;
b) For tction of a monument (TOTEM), representative of the human group;
c) For the name that was attributed to the members, derived of the species or object that the CLAN acted (Examples: the bears, the beavers, the crows, etc.);
d) For the rituals and social procedures that expressed their faiths.
Besides animals, vegetables or several objects (the wood, the water, etc.), the totemists could also deify a dear ancestor, a well-administrator or a hero imaginary or real).
Article originally published in
author: HERBERT GONÇALVES ESPUNY