Mahmud Ghazni’s Conquests
Raja Jaipal, a scion of the Hindu Shahiya dynasty of Kabul, for long the doorkeeper of India in the Northwest was conqured by Mahmud in about 1000 AD. Mahmud collected a huge amount as indemnity. But in 1004 AD he stormed Bhatiya, plundered the place and stayed there for some time to convert the Hindus to Islam with the help of mullahs he had brought with him.
In 1008 AD he captured Nagarkot (Kangra). The loot amounted to a huge sum of money, gold and silver. Besides plenty of precious stones and embroidered cloths. In 1011 AD he plundered Thanesar which was undefended, destroyed many temples, and broke a large number of idols. The chief idol, was taken to Ghazni and thrown into the public square for defilement under the feet of the faithful according to a record of his times.
The Sultan returned with the plunder and praised Allah for the honor He bestowed on Islam and Muslims. In 1013 AD Mahmud advanced against Nandana where the Shahiya king, Anandapal, had established his new capital. The Hindus fought very hard but lost. Again, the temples were destroyed, and innocent citizens slaughtered and the Sultan returned with the immense booty, and slaves. They were sold to do menial works to his people or to traders.
The road was now clear for attacking Hindustan and in December 1018 AD Mahmud crossed the Yamuna, attacked Baran (Bulandshahar), and marched to Mahaban in Mathura district. Mathura was the next victim. Mahmud seized five gold idols "The Sultan gave orders that all the temples should be burnt, and leveled with the ground." The pillage of the city continued for 20 days. Later the sultan turned towards Kanauj which had been the seat of several Hindu dynasties and reportedly he destroyed ten thousand temples... The Brahmins of Munj, which was attacked next, fought to the last man after throwing their wives and children into fire. The fate of Asi was sealed as its ruler took fright and fled.
Mahmud's attack of Somnath is well-recoreded. The fragments of the famous idol were carried to Ghazni. And later sent to Mecca, Medina, and Baghdad to become parts of building construction
Hamud's son Masud tried to follow the footsteps of his father and in 1037 AD he succeeded in sacking the fort of Hansi The Brahmins and other high ranking men were slain, and their women and children were carried away captive, and all the treasure which was found was distributed among the army." As he was engaged elsewhere, he did not make any other adventure