Mesa Verde (Southwest Colorado): 500AD-1300 lush
environment, sheltered under caves and rocks. Cliff House, Cliff Palace focus
of community, ceremonial sites, Spruce Tree House, other ruins (Square Tower
House, Balcony House, Kiva at Long House)
Mimbres AD1000-1130 New Mex, superb pottery, large
settlements, single story, many rooms
Tsegi Canyon (Near Kayenta, Arizona): Betatakin,
Canyon de Chelly (northeast Ariz): White House Ruin
AD1-modern, Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde
Shabik’eschee Village (Chaco Canyon, New Mex): 60 pithouses, huge
ceremonial building. “Great Kiva”.
Chaco Phenomenon:AD900-1150: Great houses, Pueblo Bonito largest of great houses, semi circular, famous road
system. Hohokam Cultures: Pioneer
300-775, Colonial 775-975, Sedentary 975-1150, Classic 1150-1350, differs from
Anasazi by rectangular single unit dwellings, low platform mounds, ball courts,
cremations, irrigation systems, pottery.
Snaketown on Gila River, wide undulating mounds, greatest extent during
sedentary, large, ball courts, mounds of trash heaps, irrigation canals. Self sufficiency no road systems.
Mogollon: 250BC-AD1450, brown or red ceramics. Patayan: AD875-modern,
Southewest Archaic: 6500BC-AD200. San-Dieguito-Pinto
Tradition, Cali Ariz, pinto-basin points, Oshara Tradition, New Mex, 6 phases
defined by points, The Cochise Tradition, project points and seed-processign
tools, Chihuahua Tradition:
The Lower Sonoran Agricultural Complex: AD300-500,
Co and Sed: Snaketown, canals for water Classic:Escalante Ruin, Salado compound
L’Anse aux Meadows (Newfoundland, Canada): Norse
Kensington Rune Stone – false Norse artifact,
Newport Tower – also false Viking construction
Terminal Archaic: 1650-700BC Susquehanna, Orient
traditions, NY area
Woodland Societies: 700BC-AD1000 Meadowood phase
700-300BC large base camps where native grass abundant, horticulture most
important innovation at the time.
Point Peninsula 600-700AD popular candidate
for Iroquaian ancestry. Early Iroq:
Princess Point, Glen Meyer, Pickering, Ontario 900-1275AD. Owasco: NY,
cultivation, fortified villages and overland trails signify increase importance
of warfare. Middle Iroq: 1300AD-
warfare and cannabilism became important.
Late Iroq: 1400AD-europeans, Iroquai league of 5 nations, tribes,
dependence on horticulture. Onondaga of
5 nations redefined culture, items from Europeans 16th 17th
Plains Archaic: c5600-500AD central US, small moving
bands, hunt bison. Early Plains
Archaic: c5600-3000BC, Hawken Site in Wyoming, bison kill spot. Middle Plains Archaic: c2900-c1000BC,
refinement of hunting, McKeon, Kobold,
Late Plains Archaic: c1000BC-500AD, point
innovations, Ruby Corral and Muddy Creek, contructed corrals for bison kills,
Head Smashed IN Bison jump.
Northwestern Plains Periphery: 500BC on, Gull Lake. Later Bison Hunters: 500AD-16th,
bow and arrow
Protohistoric Period: 16th –modern,
Plains Woodland Tradition: 1st millennia
AD bow and arrow, cultivation maize and beans, pottery, burial mounds.
Plains Village Indians: AD1000-1500, lodge
houses more substantial than Woodland, permanent settlements, bone hoes.