Novel is a fictitious tale or narrative which is longer than a short story, having some degree of complexity and development of characters; it is usually organized as a time sequence of events and is commonly intended to exhibit the operation of the passions, and often of love (Dryden). Novel is the most popular literary work in the world. It is more acceptable and the most outstanding in the society, because one of the reasons is extensive communication power in the society itself. It allows a great variety of characters, greater complication of plots, sustained exploration of character, the development of circumstances or setting. Novel is a kind of literary work concluding social and cultural terms, sense, morality and education. It is a great variety of writing that has in common only the attribute of being extended works of fiction written in prose. As a reading work, we can find novel in the 2 divisions based on its function; serious novel and entertaining novel. Not all of the entertaining novels can be concluded as serious novel. A serious novel means it should be exciting work and can amuse such a kind of self entertaining personally to the reader. By reading a novel, people feels amused, satisfied, and excited after enjoying the paper chapter by chapter. A good novel must be able humanize the reader, otherwise an entertaining novel can be said only has function to be enjoyed merely for having fun. The main point is to give the sense of entertaining or satisfying to the reader during this reading toward a certain novel. It can be said that it has social function, but entertaining novel has personal function merely. It gives small contribution to the human character. A novel said having social function because a good novel should contribute at least one particular thing which supports morality which can build human character, on the contrary an entertaining novel does not care so much to whether the story build man character or not, the important thing is attractive and once people notice the title of the novel they will not need more time to think twice to have and read it, it is also said commercial thing.
The novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose, followed by the novella and the short story. It is an extended narrative, the difference between novel itself and the work of middle length called novelette is it allows a great variety of characters, greater complication of plots, more sustained exploration of character, the development of circumstances or what we call with setting. The term for the novel in most European language is roman, which is derived from the medieval term, the romance. The English name for the form, on the other hand, is derived from the Italian novella (literally, “a little new thing”), which was a short tale in prose. In fourteenth-century Italy there was a vogue for collections of such tales, some serious and regarded as morally or legally wrong and causing general public outrage, rumor, which can arise gossip; the best known of these collections is Boccaccio’s Decameron, which is still available in English translation. The term “novella” is often used as an equivalent for novelette; a prose fiction of middle length, such as Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness or Thomas Mann’s Death in Venice. Long narrative romances in prose were written by Greek writers as early as the second and third centuries A.D. Typically they dealt with separated lovers who, after perilous adventures and hairbreadth escapes, are happily reunited at the end. The best known of these Greek romances, influential in later European literature, were the Aethiopica by Heliodorus and the charming pastoral narrative Daphnis and Chloe by Longus. Thomas lodge’s Rosalynde (the model for Shakespeare’s As You Like It) and Sir Philip Sydney’s Arcadia were Elizabethan continuations of the pastoral romance of the ancient Greeks..