Roman power and
influence had it’s beginning in the insignificant mud village on the Tiber
River where various people belonging to the Indo-European group settled in the
central Italian Peninsula. Among the important tribes are the Latins and
Etruscans who were constantly in conflict. The Latins established a republic by
509 B.C. After a long struggle the Plebians gained control of the government
and by 270 B.C. the Romans had conquered the Italian Peninsula.
The Punic Wars were waged between Rome and Carthage over the supremacy of the Mediterranean
Sea. While the victory of the Romans enriched many of them it
brought serious undesirable among the people. Many attempts were made to reform
the state but were unsuccessful. The Civil War which broke out was finally
resolved under Augustus Caesar who established the Roman
Empire. This worked the beginning of the Pax Romana. The Roman Empire began to show signs of decay by the third
century A.D. In an effort to strengthen the government Diocletian and Constantinople established a despotic government. The
fall of the Roman Empire came with the defeat
of Romulus Augustus in the hands of Odoacer, a German general. The Romans
preserved Greek Culture. Classical culture refers to the blending of Greek and
Roman cultures. The Romans’ greatest contribution to the world culture was a
body of law suitable for governing world state. The Roman made very few
contributions to scientific knowledge but they were skillful in applying their
knowledge of science to practical use as evidenced in their excellent roads,
bridges, aqueducts, stadiums, colosseums and massive public buildings.
Literature produces during Golden Age was among the finest in the world.