In 1957 the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD = Department of Defense) formed ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) in response to its launch of Sputnik the Soviet Union. ARPA duty increase technological capabilities that can be used by the military. ARPA carry out their duties by providing assistance and doing contract work with universities and companies that have ideas that are considered promising for the operation.
In the mid-1960s, when the peak of the Cold War, DoD wants to have command and control network that can defend themselves in case of nuclear war. To overcome this problem change the direction of DoD research, ARPA. In cooperation with several universities, ARPA decided that the DoD needed a network that is packet-switching shape consisting of a subnet and host computers. In December 1968, ARPA gave the contract to BBN, a consulting firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts to build these networks and create software support.
Although there are still shortcomings in the software problems, in December 1969 successfully launched an experimental network connecting four nodes of UCLA, UCSB, SRI and Utah University. ARPANET network was soon expanded rapidly covers the whole of the U.S. in its first three years. In addition to helping the growth of the ARPANET was still premature, ARPA also funded research satellite networks and packet radio networks mobile.
This observation is encouraging more and more research on the protocol, which culminated in the discovery model and TCP / IP. TCP / IP is specifically designed to handle communication through the internetwork, something that becomes increasingly important as more networks and LANs that are connected to the ARPANET. To encourage the use of new protocols are, ARPA held several contracts with BBN and the University of California at Berkeley to integrate these protocols into the Berkeley UNIX.
In 1983, ARPANET has a large network and already can be considered stable and successful. During the 1980s, additional networks, especially the LAN, the more connected to the ARPANET. In line with the increased network size, host-even more expensive. Therefore, DNS (Domain Naming System) was formed to organize the machines into specific domains and map host names into IP addresses.
In 1984 the NSF began designing high-speed backbone network that will connect all six superkomputernya center in San Diego, Boulder, Champaign, Pittsburgh, Ithaca and Princeton. This network is projected as a substitute for the ARPANET, and will be open to all research groups of universities, research laboratories, libraries and museums to access the sixth superkomputernya and communicate with each other. This network is also connected to the ARPANET. Furthermore NSF an opportunity to create a network plan and give his successor contract to Michigan-based consortium of MERIT to implement the plan. This network was eventually overwhelmed, so in 1990, this network immediately improved.
In 1995, NSFNET backbone no longer required to menginterkoneksikan regional networks NSF. To facilitate and ensure that each regional network can communicate with other regional networks, NSF gave contracts to four network operators to create NAP (Network Access Point). These operators are PacBell (San Francisco), Ameritech (Chicago), MFS (Washington DC) and Sprint (New York City). Every network operator that wants to provide backbone services to regional networks to connect all of NSF these NAPs. In addition to NSF NAPs, has also created a variety of government NAP (eg, FIX-E, FIX-W, MAE-East and MAE-West) and commercial NAPs (eg CIX).
After the TCP / IP is expressed as the only official protocol on 1 January 1983, the number of networks, machines and users are connected to the ARPANET grew rapidly. At the NSFNET and ARPANET connected to each other, the growth becomes exponential. Many regional networks are joined and created relationships to build networks in Canada, Europe and the Pacific.
In the mid-1980s, people began to look at a collection of networks. Growth continues exponentially, and in 1990 the Internet had grown into a network of 3000 computers and 200,000. In 1992, the host unity million has been connected to the network. In 1995, there were a lot of backbone, hundreds of mid-level networks (regional), tens of thousands of LAN, millions of hosts and tens of millions of users.
Until the early 1990s, the Internet is widely used by academics, government and industry researchers. A new application, the WWW (World Wide Web) changed the face of the Internet and help millions of new users, nonacademic to the network. This application, was discovered by CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee, without changing the facilities that already exist but it makes it easier to use. Together with the Mosaic viewer, created by the NCSA (National Center for Supercomputer Applications), the WWW allows a site (site) to construct a number of pages that contain text information, images, sounds and even video, by placing links to other pages . By clicking a link, users will be immediately taken to a page that indicated by the link.
Within a year after Mosaic was launched, the number of WWW servers grew from 100 to 7000. This rapid growth continues rapidly until now.