Borobudur was built around 800 AD or 9 century. Borobudur was built by followers of Mahayana Buddhism during the reign of Dynasty Dynasty. This temple was built in the heyday dynasty dynasty. The founder of the Borobudur Temple, King Samaratungga from or dynasty dynasty dynasty. The possibility of this temple was built around 824 AD and was completed around 900 AD during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who helped to build this temple for stories passed down through generations named Gunadharma.
Borobudur own words based on the first written evidence that was written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, which gives the name of this temple. There is no written evidence that older people who gave the name of this temple of Borobudur. Only one of the oldest document showing the existence of this temple is Nagarakretagama book written by MPU Prapanca year 1365th The book was written that this temple was used as a place for Buddhist meditation.
Meaning of the name Borobudur "abbey in the mountains" which comes from the word "coal" (temple or monastery) and "beduhur" (hills or high ground) in sanskrit. Therefore, in accordance with the meaning of the name Borobudur, then this place since long ago used as a place of Buddhist worship.
This temple for centuries no longer used. So, because of volcanic eruptions, covered most of the buildings Borobudur volcanic soil. In addition, the building is also covered with various trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the time Islam came to Indonesia around the 15th century.
In 1814, when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles heard about the discovery of huge archaeological objects in the village of Magelang district Bumisegoro. Due to great interest in the history of Java, and then immediately ordered Raffles HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the discovery of the location was a hill covered with shrubs.
Cornelius assisted by about 200 men fell trees and remove shrubs that covered the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then report to the Raffles Cornelius invention contains multiple images. Since its discovery, was Raffles named the man who started the restoration of Borobudur temple and got worldwide attention. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been excavated. The temple is held back in the Dutch colonial era.
After Indonesian independence in 1956 the Indonesian Government requested assistance from UNESCO to examine the damage to Borobudur. So, in 1963. Out of the official Indonesian Government's decision to implement the restoration of Borobudur temple by UNESCO This was however restored only really started to happen on 10 August 1973. Process new renovations completed in 1984. Since 1991, designated Borobudur as a World or World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Borobudur Temple Architecture
Borobudur temple is located in Magelang, Central Java, about 40 kilometers from Yogyakarta. Borobudur has 10 levels consisting of 6 levels of a square, round, round and level 3, a main stupa as a highlight. At all levels there are several stupas. In total there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In each stupa are statues of Buddha. Ten levels of Buddhist philosophy, which describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva, which must pass in order to attain perfection of the Buddha in Nirvana. This perfection symbolized by the main stupa at the top level. Borobudur structure when viewed from above form a mandala structure depicting Buddhist cosmology and man's thinking.
On the fourth side of the temple is gate and staircase to the level above it as a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. Stone was later the sand, then in plants, then insects, then wild animals and pets, and the last to be human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is to be the soul and ultimately to nirvana. Each stage of enlightenment in this life processes based on the Buddhist philosophy is illustrated in reliefs and statues throughout the temple of Borobudur.
This huge building just a huge pile of stones that have an overall height of 42 meters. Each stone joined without cement or glue. These stones are only associated with patterns and stacked. The base of Borobudur temple is approximately 118 m on each side. The stones are used around 55,000 cubic meters. All stones are taken from the river around Borobudur Temple. The stones are cut and then transported and in a pattern like Lego games. All without using glue or cement.
Meanwhile, relief began to happen after the end rocks stacked and connected. Reliefs available on the temple walls. Borobudur has various relief 2670th Relief should be read clockwise. This relief shows a story that I read it starts and ends at the gate to the east. This shows that the main entrance of the Borobudur Temple on the east like most other Buddhist temples.