Research is the translation of the
English language, which is a combination of the words re (again) and search
(find). Some other sources say that the research is derived from French recherché.
It essences that research is "looking back".
The definition of a study appearing
today's diverse, one of which is quite famous is according to Webster's New
Collegiate dictionary says that the research is "an investigation or
examination is serious, especially investigation or experimentation aimed at
finding and interpreting the facts, revision of the theory or arguments that
have been accepted ". There
are 9 criteria of research as follows:
1. Research should be ranged around the problem
you want to solve.
2. The study
must contain at least small-element originality. Originality researchers must
have the scientific imagination and be creative. Researchers should have a
diamond that plans and initiatives should be fertile with ideas that are
rational and avoid plagiarized.
3. Research must be based on the view
"Want to know".
4. Research should be conducted with an open
5. Research must be based on the assumption
that a phenomenon has law
6. Research wishes to find proposition.
7. Research is the study of cause and effect.
8. The study should use an accurate measurement.
9. The study must use a technique known
In a book entitled Introduction to
Research, T. Hillway added that the research is "a study carried out by
someone through a careful investigation and perfect to a problem, in order to
obtain an exact solution to the problem". Another scientist named Woody
suggests that research is the "method of finding the truth is conducted
with critical thinking”.
Research can use the scientific
method or non-scientific method. But if we see from the definition above, a lot
of research intersect with critical thinking, rational, logical (reasoning),
and analytical, so that eventually the use of scientific method is a plural and
generally agreed upon in the study. The scientific method is also considered
more could be measured, verified and understood by human senses. Research using
the scientific method is called by scientific research. Below is kinds of
research such as :
research is useful for obtaining research findings and building a new
theoretical framework. Qualitative research usually pursues verbal data more
representative of the phenomenon and not the full figures percentage and less
evenly represent the entire phenomenon. From qualitative research, the data
obtained from the field are usually not structured and relatively many,
allowing researchers to organize, critic, and classify through qualitative
research. The term qualitative research, initially from a quantitative
observation based on opposed to qualitative observations (Suwardi Endraswara,
Qualitative research (including historical and
descriptive research) is the research that does not use mathematical models,
statistical or computer. The research process begins by establishing the basic
assumptions and rules of thinking that will be used in the study. The
assumptions and rules of thinking are then applied systematically in collecting
and processing data to provide explanations and arguments.
Qualitative methods use some form of data
collection such as an open interview transcripts, observation descriptions, as
well as analysis of documents and other artifacts. The data is analyzed while
maintaining the authenticity of the text that has meaning. This is done because
the purpose of qualitative research is to understand the phenomenon from the
viewpoint of the participants, social and institutional contexts. So that a
qualitative approach generally is inductive.
Qualitative research is a model of humanistic
research, which puts humans as the main subject in the social events / culture.
This type of research is based on the phenomenological philosophy of Edmund
Husserl (1859-1928) and later developed by Max Weber (1864-1920) in sociology.
The nature of the humanist school of thought is seen from the view of the human
position as the major determinant of individual behavior and social phenomena.
In Weber's view, human behavior is the visible consequences of a number of
views ror doctrines that live on human heads the culprit. So, there are a
number of terms, restrictions, or the complexity of meanings that actors live
in the human head, which forms expression behavior explicitly.
According to August Comte (1798-1857) stated
that the quantitative paradigm is a research approach that builds upon the
philosophy of positivism. Positivism is a philosophical school which rejected
metaphysical and theological elements of social reality. Since the rejection of
metaphysical and theological elements, positivism is sometimes regarded as a
variant of Materialism (if the latter is contrasted with idealism).
In quantitative research is believed, that the only
knowledge (knowledge) is valid science (science), the knowledge that originated
and is based on experience (experience) who was caught passing to and processed
by the faculty of reason (reason). Epistemologically, the study received a
quantitative paradigm that the most important source of knowledge is a fact
that has never happened, and more specifically the things that can be captured
five senses (exposed to the sensory experience). This also indicates, that
ontologically, the object of study is a quantitative study of phenomena and the
general relationships between these phenomena (general relations the between
phenomena). The definition of the phenomenon here is in line with the principle
of sensory experience is limited to the external appearance given in sense
perception alone. Because knowledge is sourced from the facts obtained through
the five senses, then science must be based on the experiment, induction and
In line with the above explanation, in
epistemology, quantitative paradigm holds that the source of that knowledge
consists of two, namely rational thought empirical data. Therefore, the measure
of truth lies in the coherence and correspondence. Coherent means accordance
with earlier theories, and correspondence means in accordance with empirical
reality. Framework for the development of science starts from the process of
formulating the hypothesis that deduction from the theory, then tested its
truth through the verification for further processing inductively toward
formulating a new theory. Thus, the epistemological, the development of science
is turning to follow the cycle, logic, hypothetic, verification.