Importance of the role of the philosophy in the treatment of passions
Te medical model is omnipresent when it matter to determine as well as the wisdom, who is the health of soul (in latin: sapienta sanitas animi T III 5) that the madness of passionate soul. The passion is a illness who include degrees; like we discern in the case of the body between illness, infirmity and vice or malformation, we can discern degrees in passion, going of simple incorrigible trouble of malformation. But the illness of soul toil of fact, comparatively the difference as the body, the soul is not immediately conscious, where as those of body indicate by the pain.
«For the body, he <the men> had searching with cares of healing art or prevent the illness; and this invention seems to be enough usefull to use in for honnor of Gods. But to which of soul, we doesn''t have the same perceptions for discover how to eliminate wickedness; and since he was discover, we have less applied: it had less approver, it even have a lot of ennemies. Is this differente came from that the soul, however fell that use to be de body, is always in state of judgement of these illness, instead that the body can''t at not time to know those of soul?
The sick soul is those who is be let to warn by a false opinion (by exemple tha the money is a possession); the disabled soul or bad conformed soul is those who have acquired an habit (the avarice) such that it don''t dispose no more stable priciples neither coherence. Conversly like the sane body is those who know the humors equilibrium, the sane soul, beautiful, strong, vigorous, agile is those wich the jusdgements are in conpliance with the reason or the good sense and who is conform at its precept. A difference however come of that the illness of body don''t be always of that we are completely responsable of the illness of our soulé
At the difference of body illness who necessitate a good constitution and a good doctor, the soul illness can heal without the recourse of a doctor:
«All spirit, who gonna have really want to healing itself, and who obey at the wise precepts, infallibly success. Yes without doubt the philosophy is the real medecine of soul, like those who act on the body: it is necessary that only, for let them to us salutary, of not negligate what depends of us»
On this subject of passions, Ciceron declare to prefer follow the stoicien principles who have «something male and nervous» even if he sweeten sometimes the temrs. At the chapter 24 of book 3 of the Tusculanes he present two analysis méthods and of treatments too: either examine the nature of the thing et its property, either invoke exemples. He apply this then at the question about knowing if the poverty may be a cause of sadness (for answer negatively). In the Tusculanes who speak at the none philosophers, he use the two methods, multiply the historics et poetics exemples (the tragedie) and resume the definition of stoicians.
The passions Definition:
Zenon define the passion like a «mouvement of soul opposed at the right reason» or a too violent apetite, a perturbation of soul or an illness, a mouvement of soul in opposition with the reason, opposite to the nature, an exagerate inclination.
Ciceron reproach at stoician to be too long on the definition et the divisions of passions and too short on the means to protect. The peripatetician do the opposite. Ciceron gonna follow the stoician about this subject « cause this is them who have showing de more penetration». The definition of passions suppose the division of soul in two parts, one reasonnable and calm, the other, impetuous. However this presuppose division of soul is more platonician than stoician
In the strict stoicism, only the wise is exempt of passions and all the none wise are insane. The wisdom ou health of the soul consist in a certain spirit serinity and humour equality. A passionate man, say Ciceron on several occasions, have no control (in latin : exisse ex potestate), he''s quick tempered.
For take care the passions it should know in what they consists and how they combine by itself.
The four big passions and the three constances.
The passions to devide in two big groups, commanded by two big passions: the desire (in latin: cupiditas and the pleasure or the crazy joy in latin : laetitia) who born of opinion on a possession in one part and in other part the sadness and the fear who born on opinions about the madness, to which add the consideration of present (pleasure, sadness) or of future (desire, fear). The stoicians gives very specific defenitions so that to show that we can be master when wa acting on element: by exemple the sadness is the opinion of a bad present judged like it worth tant the soul cut down and stenghten.