Imanuel Kant’s The Critique of Pure Reason. Immanuel Kant is a German Philosopher known for his Transcendental Philosophy. Immanuel Kant’s The Critique of Pure Reason is a not Criticism proper, the book itself is an analysis. Kant defends Instinct against the eulogy of Reason of the Age of Reason. He places it above Reason or Logic. Kant’s philosophy is popularly called Transcendental Philosophy – Transcendental because it transcends sense- experience. In this book he discusses Transcendental Aesthetic, Transcendental Logic and Transcendental Dialectic. Kant’s first contention in this book is that -there is no absolute certainty of any knowledge and Knowledge is independent of Sense experience, that is a priori. Transcendental Aesthetic: Here he says the Brain (Mind) transforms the sensations (raw materials) into thoughts. Any co-ordination of sensations takes into account Space and Time, meaning to say any object is defined either in spatial or temporal aspect. Kant says Space and time are forms of perception. Once the co-ordination of Sensations (Perception) is over, co-ordination of perception takes place taking into account categories of thoughts. Co-ordination of perception is Conception: Sense ---------- (forms) Sensations + Space/Time = Perception Perception + Thoughts (purpose of mind) = Conception
Remember Kant says Space and Time are a priori – It presupposes all experience.
With Organization of perception (Conception) we pass on to Transcendental Logic. Transcendental Logic: Here he puts his ideas more bluntly: Sensations = Unorganized Stimulus Perception= Organized Sensations
Conception= Organized Perception = Organized Knowledge = Science (By Stimulus he means thoughts –primal). But Organized Knowledge may also become Organized Life, so Conception= Organized Perception= Organized Knowledge = Science/Life Organized Organized Life = Wisdom
Classification of senses leads to Science and classification of experience leads to Philosophy . (Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy). Transcendental Dialectic: Here he says the object we see is only a phenomena – something relative and the noumena can never be perceived. The isness of the thing can only be imagined. He says Understanding cannot go beyond sensibility. Substance, Cause and necessity are valid only for phenomena, not for noumena (for God). Kant’s greatest contribution to philosophy is distinction between Phenomenon and Noumenon.