Mecca was an important trade city for the Arab tribes where Muhammad was born in circa 570 CE. Every year, about 3 million Muslims come to Mecca to perform the Hajj pilgrimage. In 629 Muhammad marched with 2,000 people to Mecca, circumambulated the Kaaba seven times, touched the Black Stone using his rod and said: "There is no God but Allah". The organized conduct of the people led by Muhammad had impressed some of the members of the Quraysh tribe, who decided to appoint him their military leader. Muhammad then realized that he was capable of conquering Mecca. He returned to Medina, and in 630 he set out to Mecca with 5,000 warriors under the claim that one of the tribes had broken the truce agreement. The inhabitants of Mecca realized that there was no use in resistance and opened the gates of Mecca. Muhammad killed only the leaders of his enemies and shattered the idols in the Kaaba, but left the Black Stone and ordered that, from now on, only Muslims be allowed into Mecca.
In 1916, Hussein bin Ali proclaimed himself king of Hejaz and further proclaimed himself Caliph of all Muslims. In 1924, following the Battle of Mecca, he was overthrown by the Saudis, and Mecca was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.