Umar bin Al Khattab
Umar’s full name is Umar bin Al Khattab. He was born at Makkah around 580 A.D He was younger than Prophet Mohammad was by about ten years. Khattab, the father of Umar, was among the prominent members of the Banu Adis. Umar's mother was Khantamah who was the daughter of Hishām bin al-Mughîrah. One of the sisters of Umar's mother, Umm Salma was married to Prophet Muhammad. When Umar was a child, he used to graze the flocks of goats and sheep of his maternal aunts. Among the Quraish of Makkah, only seventeen persons could read and write, and Umar was one of them. Umar was a skillful rider. He was very intelligent and shrewd. He was a good public speaker. On several occasions, he successfully undertook ambassadorial missions on behalf of the Quraish. He was always prepared to stand up against the oppressor and espouse the cause of the weak. He was a successful trader and he undertook journeys to Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and elsewhere. When Umar migrated from Makkah, he was one of the richest Quraish merchants. Umar had three wives. His first wife was Qariba bint Abi Umayya al-Makhzumi. She belonged to the same clan as the mother of Umar. His second wife was Zainab bint Maziun. She was the sister of Usman bint Maz'un an early companion for whom the Holy Prophet had great regard. She was the mother of Abdullah and Hafsah. His third wife was Malaika bint Jarul al-Khuzai. She was also called Umm Kulsum. When the Holy Prophet (peace be on him) proclaimed his apostlehood. Umar, a young man of strong convictions, held the new faith to be a sacrilege of the idols of Katbah. He went to the Quraish and participated in their counsels. Then the meeting invited volunteers who would kill the Prophet. Umar volunteered to kill the Prophet. Meanwhile, he was compelled to go to the house of his sister, Fatima and Brother-in-Law Saeed Bin Zaid, who became Muslims. Sister Fatima made him to read some Ayats of Quran. Umar felt that those verses of Ta Ha were addressed to him in person, and the mysterious Ta Ha referred to Umar-the Man. Then, he said to his sister, "I came to you as an enemy of Islam; I go from you as a friend of Islam. I had buckled this sword to slay the Prophet of Islam; I now go to him to offer him allegiance." Then Umar became a prominent follower of Islam. The Prophet took Umar’s daughter Hafsah as his third wife. After many years, he became the Second Khalifa, after the death of Abu Bakr in the year 13 AH. For ten years, he ruled religiously. He was killed by Firoz, a Persian slave in the year 23 AH. In his times, the Islamic empire increased a lot.