In its general approach, the author lists the following issues to be addressed: a) History of Geography (lines of thought), b) Geography and Post-Modernity, c) Review of concepts and meanings of spatial concepts (landscape, territory, place , region and environment), and finally bring an attached text on Geography, Environment and Anarchism.When beginning the history of geography, the author of a text apontae Mao Zedong to indicate two ways of conceiving the world: metaphysics and dialectics. The metaphysical view would be that "everything that exists has always existed", ie the conservation of matter, where nothing can come out of nowhere and can not turn into anything. Already a dialectical view would conceive a world where "everything flows", in other words, would admit the transience of things.Turning to the issues most afetas the geography, the author lists some methods of study used, namely: a) the positivist method, b) The Dialectics and Historical Materialism, and c) Phenomenology.The author contextualizes positivism as the classic scientific method, other methods of influencing and, in geography, has left its mark in the configuration of what we call Classical Geography. This had its geography-based method "to locate, observe, describe and explain," even stayed open a fundamental question: How can geography as a science that says the connection between nature and society, is situated in positivism, which separates the social sciences?In this issue, and his criticisms came the neo-positivist perspective, which brings in geography in the 1950s (Theoretical Geography or Quantitative). This perspective sought from the "recovery of experiences ... proposes abandoning the causal relationship and indicates the replacement of the probability function," assuming a new method, the hypothetical-deductive method, in contrast to the empirical-deductive method of positivism Classic.Another important question arises about the implications for the Neopostivismo Geography because "it is necessary to start the analysis from the construction of hypotheses that derive from theories ... However, having consolidated theories, as geographers would proceed?". The geography is seeking models even outside of their circle, for example, the Isolated State theory, only the finding that "there was no theory building geographical coverage."Next, the author discusses the influence of historical materialism in geography, noting that "in light Materialist History, the geographic space contains socialized nature", noting that work, and their respective social divisions, is the fundamental category of analysis . Thus, the obejtivo is "to seek the understanding of reality as a totality," in clear disagreement with the positivist fragmentation. The statement, philosophical thinking is the man while being natural and the social and geographical space as "material expression of the transformation of the first second nature."Next, the author brings to phenomenology, conceptualizing it as a method of describing the phenomenon, ie, that which presents itself immediately, resulting in exclusion of beliefs and trying to capture the meanings given by the authors (geographicity).The radicality of the phenomenological conception would be to conceive of geography as an interpretation, so there are many geographies as is the experience of spaces.
Later, the author brings the idea of Post-Modernity, even without clear consensus, it can not be ignored in discussions on different dimensions, such as cultural and economic. These questions, with the backdrop of the questioning of totalizing visions brought by the Post-Modernity, will lead to a revaluation of the space as a place of existence, different.Later, the author raises a different issue, bringing the perspective of Anarchism. The author seeks to address concepts such as self-management and decentralization to show their relevance to contemporary geographical discourse, particularly on environmental issues. Also present the idea of "Social Geography", breaking with the classical dichotomy between Physical Geography and Human Geography for, according to the author, "to seek another matrix of thought, where Cartesian reason does not know the rule or give subsidies to ( a) the domination of man by man. "Last but not least, the author imposes a tour de force on the following geographic concepts: space, landscape, territory, place, region and environment. Without seeking to be exhaustive, the author exposes the didactic nature of the work and put it to trace the outlines of each concept.In general, the author sees in the concept space marker of geography, regarded as one and multiple systems of objects and actions systems ... in which the story takes place (Santos). Landscape, operational concept, is regarded as a concept that "allows us to analyze the geographic space in one dimension, namely the combination of natural elements / input situations, socioeconomic and cultural. The concept of territory is seen in its classical conception, linked to the idea of power, with the proviso realize now, the flexibility of the concept, translated into territorial complexities (territory of the drugs, for example). Place another operational concept, if the dimension of existence is manifested through a "shared daily life", from a ratio site-local to a global-local relationship. Region appears as a concept derived from the quantitative part, indicative of class area, through its connection to the Marxist social division of labor to acquire multiple dimensions such as cultural. Finally, to expound upon the concept of environment, the author cites the text "The Discovery of Hunger" to characterize this concept with a view completely, allowing no more consider it only natural, but the scene of man in its social construction