Harmonious society refers to the one consisting of different factors and relations, which mainly involve multiple relationships among citizens, society, government, market, and nature. Aiming at providing services for citizens and taking service responsibility, Service-oriented government, under the guide of citizen-based and society-based idea, refers to the one that is set up according to citizens' will by legal proceedings under the framework of social and democratic order. A good administration results in that people live together in harmony. It is an inevitable choice for building the socialist harmonious society to build a service-oriented government that is suitable to the socialist market economy and can boost the harmonious development of society and economy. To build a service-oriented government, it is necessary to adjust the relation between government and citizens, government and market, government and social organization according to the basic need of the socialist harmonious society.