The republics of Greece vacillated between the governmental extremes of anarchy and tyranny for lack of a Union but advocates of despotism none-the-less argue against republican government as being inconsistent with an orderly society. Fortunately, there are glorious instances where societies reared on liberty have flourished, refuting this argument, and American also will be a monument to this error of thinking.
If the republican form of government had been found wanting, it would have been abandoned as indefensible. However, the science of politics has improved and now various principles are understood which were not adequately known to the ancients: distribution of power into separate departments; legislative checks and balances; institution of courts and judges of good behavior; and representation of the people by elected deputies. We add to this an increase of the breadth of application of the republican form of government within which we allow these principles to evolve with sufficient breadth to include all the states in a single Confederacy.
Opponents to increasing the breadth of application of the republican government refer to Montesquieu's argument on the necessity of a limited territory of application. However, his idea of limited territory was dimensions smaller than the area covered by any one of the states of Virginia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York, North Carolina, or Georgia. The multitude of little commonwealths that would arise would lead to jealous, clashing, wretched nurseries of discord. The idea that some writers put forward of division of larger ststes as a desirable thing would result in multiplication of petty offices and increase the circles of personal intrigue. It would never promote the greateness or happiness of the American people. Montesquieu does support the concept of a confederate republic for extending the sphere of popular government as reconciling advantages of monarchy and republicanism. He states that mankind would have been obliged to live under the government of one person had the people not contrived a constitution combining the internal advantages of a republican with the external force of a monarchical government, that is, the Confederate Republic.
The Lycian confederacy consisted of 23 city republics with votes in the Common Council based on the size of the states, with the council appointing the judges and magistrates of the respective cities. Lycia is the model of an excellent Confederate Republic.