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But most linguists use grammar objectively as a descriptive
term, referring to the way in which words are changed in form and put together
to form meaningful sentences. Grammar is traditionally sub-divided into
morphology and syntax.
is to do with the actual form or structure of words, and how such word –forms
fit into patterns. Thus in Present – Day English, for instance, we distinguish
between the singular and plural forms of some words, such as book as opposed to
books, and between the present and past tenses of verbs, Such as I Love, I Loved, I shall love and so on.
is to do with relationships between words. Thus in a sentence such as Jill
loves Jack, Jill is “governing the action” of the verb loves and is therefore
the ‘subject’ of the sentence, whereas Jack ‘suffers the action’ of the verb
and is therefore the ‘object’ of the sentence. The order that words are placed
in is very important in Present-Day English; if we put Jill in place of Jack
then the meaning of the sentence would change.
How has English
The grammar of English has changed greatly since OLD ENGLISH times. Word-order was less
important then, because many more relationships between words were marked by
special endings, known as inflections, attached
to words. A few such inflections remain in Present-Day English. These endings
can be added to words. Some Present-Day English pronouns still vary
considerably depending on their role in sentences, see, for instance, the
different uses for I, me, my and mine. There were many more inflections in the Old English form of the language.