Air pollution in large cities Indonesia is very worrying. Pollutants from combustion of motor vehicles containing lead can make children grow up to be the generation that is not smart.
Leaded gasoline is still used in Indonesia. Just a few cities are already replacing gasoline with unleaded gasoline. It''s very unfortunate, considering that almost all countries in the Asia region is not use leaded gasoline.
"Only Indonesia and Laos," said Ir. Praise Lestari, Ph.D, an expert air pollution from ITB, about a country that still use leaded gasoline.
to replace the fuel, especially for public transportation, with gas, so
the level of air contaminants that contain lead have dropped
said the lecturer and researcher at the Environmental Engineering ITB
is the replacement of the fuel a major effect on lead levels in the air.
A year after no use of lead in fuel, there was a significant reduction in pollution. The same thing happened in Jakarta in 2001-2002 as Pusarpedal done, "he said.
Lead as a pollutant bad for health. Highly vulnerable groups exposed to lead are children who are growing flowers, as well as pregnant and lactating women. Lead damage the central nervous system, which can cause miscarriages or children born with mental retardation.
While in children, a study conducted by DR. Praise, show a pathetic thing. Of
the 400 students who finished the respondents, their blood lead levels
in the average has exceeded the threshold limit of 10 meg / dL.
Analysis of lead levels by taking blood samples every student. Added doctoral graduate of Illinois Institute of Technology, the U.S. is the way it does is the most easy and fast. Also gives a clear indication of the contamination of lead in the body.
The nature of lead accumulates in the blood can indicate how many levels. While people are still exposed to air containing lead, lead will continue to exist in the blood.
Another way to determine levels of lead is hair analysis. Described by Dr. Agustin
Kusumayati, MSc., Faculty of Environmental Health FKM UI, if the hair
was analyzed, usually have high levels of timbalnya.
The body is actually capable of removing the lead. It takes 35 days to remove it. Unfortunately, when every day the body exposed to lead, no time to remove it. As a result, lead will accumulate in the body.
When you have to accumulate in the bone, it would be difficult to remove. If you have this, it took forever to get it out.
The impact of lead that exceed the threshold in the child''s body, can lower the intelligence quotient (IQ) and concentration. Threshold up to 10 meg / dL, IQ can go down to 2.5 points. Several studies conducted in foreign states, the decline was up 5.7 points. In higher concentrations, more than 30 meg / dL, can cause anemia.
According to DR. Praise, children had lead levels over the threshold should be given calcium supplements. Consumption of foods high in calcium will isolate the body from exposure to lead new.
In other words, lead exposure will be blocked by calcium, so it can not get into the bloodstream. That way, the lead in the blood can come out. Abroad, said Praise, flatfoot in children is usually done to help remove lead.
Air pollution caused by burning fuels, especially from the transportation sector, contributing large enough. Therefore, it is proper to do mitigation in the form of traffic management is good and replace leaded fuel to unleaded fuel.
the other hand, to minimize lead exposure to children, parents should
provide a handkerchief to cover mouth and nose when there is air
pollution. It is not very effective, especially of lead particles small enough size, so it is still possible to pass a handkerchief.
"But it''s way better than not using a handkerchief at all," said DR Praise.
They also need to be given a high calcium diet.
There was no difference between the Disciples Women and Men
The study involved 400 students from 40 elementary schools in 25 districts in the city of Bandung. All students have blood drawn for testing lead levels.
From the measurement of lead levels in the blood or blood lead level (BLL), the average is 14.133 meg / dL. Of the 400 students as much as 34.5 percent had blood lead levels less than 10 meg / dL and 65.5 percent more than 10 meg / dL!
of the highest lead levels found in the group of children aged 11 years
is 17 meg / dL and 10-year age group, amounting to 14.746 meg / dL. Lowest levels of lead exist in the group of children aged 7 years, which is 12.191 meg / dL.
Half of the respondents also underwent IQ testing. Although not reported in value, the test results showed lead levels inversely or negatively correlated with child IQ points.
Respondents with higher lead levels showed a decreased IQ points. This means that high levels of lead lower level of intelligence of children. Not only that, high lead levels also interfere with the concentration of children''s learning.
Based on the data, the average BLL boy is 14.766 meg / dL, and girls 13.745 meg / dL. The results showed that gender did not significantly affect the BLL, Both boys and girls have the same risk for lead exposure.
Of the 400 children who take blood samples, approximately 40.8 per cent aged 9 years and 8 years about 29.8 percent. The youngest child was 5 years old and the oldest 11 years.