Objective: To investigate the effect of Bushen Huoxue Recipe (BHR) on learning and memory dysfunction and hippocampal nerve cell apoptosis in mice with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods: Mice model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established by bilateral common carotid artery blocking. The learning and memory functions were tested by Morris water maze, pathological changes of cortex and hippocampus were observed with HE staining and Nissl′s staining light microscope, morphology of apoptotic nerve cells was observed by fluorescence microscope and percentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Results: The latent period of Morris water maze test in the model group was longer than that in the normal control and sham operated group (P<0 05). Pathological changes such as cortical and hippocampal nerve cell regression, degeneration, and necrosis were found in the model mice, increase of hippocampal cell apoptosis rate reached to the peak after 6 hrs of operation (P<0 01). BHR could shorten the latent period (P<0 05), lower the apoptosis rate significantly as compared with those in the model group (P<0 05). Conclusion: BHR has the effects of improving the learning and memory functions, and of reducing the hippocampal cell apoptosis rate in mice with ischemia/reperfusion injury.