Objective: To observe the mechanism of SHU -Dihuang on the function of lea rning and memory. Method: On the dementia model mouse caused by A lCl 3 and the rats model damaged thalamic arcuate nucleus with MSG, we observed t he function of learning and memory by step down task and Morris water maze task, mensurated the content of glutamic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid by TLC,and o bs erved the expression of NMDAR1 and GABAR in hippocampi by immunohistochemical me ans. Result: Shu Di Huang could decrease the times of mis takes and prolong the incubation period in step down task, and shorten the incubation period of seekin g the platform in Morris water maze task. Shu Di Huang could adjust the content of Glu and GABA in brain, and increase the expression of hippocampal NMDAR1 and GABAR as well. Conclusion: Shu Di Huang can improve the function of learning and memory of dementia animal model,and its mechanism may be related to the adjust ment of the content of Glu and GABA in brain, and increase of the expression of hippocampal NMDAR1 and GABAR.