Follicular adenoma of the thyroid is a common benign tumor of the thyroid gland that is develops in cells that produce iodine-containing hormones. These tumors have a thin layer of tissue around them, called a capsule. They present as a solitary nodule, usually as a painless mass. It may be found during a routine physical examination. Adenomas are usually cold nodules since they usually take up less radioactive iodine than normal surrounding gland.
The women has higher incidence for having follicular adenoma than men. Ratio is 3:1.
Exposure to radiation especially the head, neck and chest can also contribute for being high risk.
Location or place of living can be also a cause specifically those individual who live in mountain side predispose them for having thyroid cancer due to inadequate source of iodine.
Age 40 years old and above are also considered high risk individual.
Insufficient iodine intake is also a known factor because it can trigger the pituitary gland to release higher amount of TSH to stimulate the release of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) from the follicular cells of the thyroid.
Surgery is the most common form of treatment for thyroid cancer that has not spread to distant parts of the body. The surgeon usually removes part or all of the thyroid and any other affected tissue, such as lymph nodes. (If the patient has a surgical biopsy, the biopsy and the removal of the thyroid may be done in the same operation).
Hormones usually are given to patients who have had surgery to remove the thyroid and/or treatment with radioactive iodine. The hormones replace those that are normally produced by the thyroid. This treatment also slows down the growth of any remaining thyroid cancer cells. The doctor may need to do follow-up tests to determine whether the patient is receiving the proper amount of the necessary hormones.
Surgery may not be recommended when a patient is found to have thyroid cancer that has spread. Treatment usually includes some form of systemic therapy (treatment that can kill or slow the growth of thyroid cancer cells throughout the body), such as chemotherapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and/or hormone therapy.
As mush as possible avoid exposure to radiation specially the upper part of the body.
Have sufficient iodine intake.
Consult physician if you noticed and felt any lump on the neck.
Have a follow up check to your physician if you are having or had radiation exposure and familial history.