Defining nursing help people to understand what is it. Here are some definitions of nursing according to the dictionaries, International Associations and Organizations and Nursing theories. This would be a great help for students who are taking Nursing, Nursing Professionals and for people who are interested in Nursing.
There a lot of definitions of nursing that would help us in our studies and researches. Nursing is derived from the Latin word “ Nutrix” which means to nourish. Nursing is the profession of a nurse and the duties of a nurse Nursing is also defined as an art and science. It is an art for nurses should have skills that require proficiency and dexterity. It is Science because it requires the systematic approach or application of the scientific knowledge. Nursing is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, maintaining, and recovering optimal health and functioning. Modern definitions of nursing define it as a science and an art that focuses on promoting quality of life as defined by persons and families, throughout their life experiences from birth to care at the life. Nursing practice is primarily the caring relationship between the nurse and the person in their care. In providing nursing care, nurses are implementing the nursing care plan, which is based on a nursing assessment.
According to Nursing Theorists:
Florence Nightingale (1860), the first nurse theorist defines Nursing as"The act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery"
Virginia Henderson (1955)The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible."
Betty Neuman (1972, 1982, 1989, 1992)Nursing is a unique profession in that it is concerned with all the variables affecting an individual’s response to stressors
Myra Estrin Levine (1973)"nursing is conserving or 'keeping together' the patient's energy and structural, personal, and social integrity as he/she struggles towards health and well-being to achieve a positive adaptation"
Hildegard Peplau (1952)"nursing is a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with other human processes which make health possible for individuals"
Imogene M. King (1971, 1981)
"nursing is an interpersonal process of action, reaction, interaction, and transaction whereby nurse and patient share information about their perceptions in the nursing situation"
Sister Callista Roy (1979)
"as a science, nursing is a developing system of knowledge about human beings used to observe, classify, and relate the processes by which persons positively affect their health status"
Joyce Travelbee (1966, 1971)
Nursing is an interpersonal process whereby the professional nurse practitioner assists an individual, family, or community to prevent or cope with the experience of illness and suffering, and if necessary, to find meaning in these experiences.
Martha Rogers (1970), A learned profession that is both science and art. The professional practice of nursing is creative and imaginative and exists to serve people.
Jean Watson (1979)Nursing is a human science of people and human health; illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, aesthetic, and ethical human care transactions.
Ernestine Wiedenbach (1964)Nursing is the nurse is a functional human being who acts, thinks, and feels. All actions, thoughts, and feelings underlie what the nurse does.
Ida Jean Orlando (1961) Professional nursing is conceptualized as finding out and meeting the client’s immediate need for help.
Lydia Hall (1964)Caring is the nurse’s primary function. Professional nursing is most important during the recuperative period.
Professional definitions of nursing
International Council of Nurses (ICN) (1973) "the unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to his health, or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge and do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible"
American Nurses Association (ANA) Social Policy Statement (1980) "Nursing is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems”
Understanding the definition of Nursing will help us to know more about it. Nursing is one of the professions that are chosen by a lot of people because of some various reasons. Mainly, Nursing is involved in the delivery of health care to the society. From the given definitions we should have understand that the nursing goal is to assist clients to promote, maintain, and restore an optimal but realistic level of physical and -mental functioning. The focus of nursing practice is on assisting clients to identify and support health promoting behaviors, and to assist them in mobilizing and using resources (emotional, physical, situational) to cope with health threatening stimuli (stress, anxiety, crisis). In the event that health-impairing behavior is observed, the professional nurse collaborates with clients to identify the impairing behavior and assists clients in exploring and implementing coping behavior. The interventions employed by the professional nurse include health monitoring, health education. Personnel and environmental management, emotional and physical support, crisis intervention, and provision of physician directed activities.